Types of Shock

Several types of shock are classified below by the cause of the condition:

Hemorrhagic shock--reduced blood volume caused by either external or internal bleeding.

Plasma loss shock--reduced blood volume results from loss of plasma into the interstitial spaces and greatly increased blood viscosity.

Intestinal obstruction--results in the movement of large amount of plasma from the blood into the intestine.

Severe burns--loss of large amounts of plasma from the burned surface.

Dehydration--results from severe and prolonged shortage of water intake.

Severe diarrhea or vomiting--loss of plasma through the intestinal wall.

Neurogenic shock--rapid loss of vasomotor tone that leads to vasodilation to the extent that a severe decrease in blood pressure results.

Anesthesia--deep general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia that decreases the activity of the medullary vasomotor center or the sympathetic nerve fibers.

Brain damage--leads to an ineffective medullary vasomotor function.

Emotional shock (vasovagal syncope)--results from emotions that cause strong parasympathetic stimulation of the heart and results in vasodilation in skeletal muscles and in the viscera.

Anaphylactic shock--results from an allergic response that causes the release of inflammatory substances that increase vasodilation and capillary permeability.

Septic shock or "blood poisoning"--results from peritoneal, systemic, and gangrenous infections that cause the release of toxic substances into the circulatory system, depressing the activity of the heart, leading to vasodilation, and increasing capillary permeability.

Cardiogenic shock--occurs when the heart stops pumping in response to conditions such as heart attack or electrocution.

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