Key Revision Changes

Main headings are numbered throughout to correlate with chapter objectives. Throughout the text, references to other chapters now include a page number so the student can easily find the reference. Following are some of the more detailed changes made to this edition.

Chapter 3, Cells: The section on the cell membrane is rewritten for improved clarity, and a description of peroxisomes added. Coverage of the cell cycle has been updated. Important new areas of cell biology mentioned briefly include apoptosis, cloning, cell adhesion, signal transduction, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. A highlight of the revised chapter is a clear depiction of the process of mitosis.

Chapter 8, Muscular System: This chapter features new art on muscle structure (figs. 8.1 and 8.2) and revised discussion of thin filaments to include the roles of troponin and tropomyosin. A revised explanation of the mechanism of muscle contraction, including new art (figs. 8.8 and 8.9) and revised table 8.1, will aid student understanding. The chapter also clarifies muscle metabolism, muscle cramps, and threshold stimulus. A new Genetics Connection box on Inherited Diseases of Muscle is incorporated into the text. Terminology used to describe the movements of flexion and extension is clarified.

Chapter 14, Lymphatic System and Immunity: The chapter opens with a new vignette (A Transplant Tale). New figures enhance the explanation of T cell and B cell activation with production of plasma cells and memory cells. The section on nonspecific resistance now includes fever. The discussion of immunity is rearranged for better flow and understanding, and additions to the section on types of acquired immunity provide a more thorough definition of naturally and artificially acquired active and passive immunities. The Topic of Interest on AIDS has been updated, and a box added on anaphylactic shock. The chapter also features a new Genetics Connection: Conquering Inherited Immune Deficiency-Children Who Made Medical History.

Chapter 16, Respiratory System: A new vignette (A Case of Poisoning) begins this chapter. The addition of terms "internal" and "external" respiration add clarity. "Alveolar sacs" is now included in the discussion of the bronchial tree. Discussions of intrapleural pressure and surface tension as factors in ventilation are clearer. A new box on non-respiratory air movements appears, as well as a reorganized discussion of the respiratory center. A box on factors affecting diffusion across the respiratory membrane is incorporated into the text, and a section on types of hypoxia added. A Genetics Connection covers Cystic Fibrosis. The chapter also features several improved figures throughout, such as figures 16.6 and 16.7 (respiratory system anatomy); figures 16.12-16.14 (mechanics of ventilation), as well as a new figure to show the relationship between pleural membranes (fig. 16.11).

Chapter 20, Pregnancy, Growth, and Development: This revised chapter includes descriptions of state-of-the-art as well as experimental chromosome visualization technologies. An added section chronicles changes to a woman's body during pregnancy.

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