I. Introduction and Rationale

In this seventh edition of Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology we continue our commitment to introduce the structure and function of the human body in an interesting and highly readable manner. We have added content only when it can be integrated into the larger concept of homeostasis and maintenance of the internal environment. Indeed, a book at this level is almost a metaphor of the human body itself-nothing unnecessary is retained, and every component contributes to the final purpose.

Given the immensely varied population of most universities and colleges, particularly two-year and community colleges, we have continued to devote top priority to the readability of this text. Our challenge has been to do so while at the same time responding to requests to enhance physiology coverage. We have accomplished this through thoughtful changes in the text and art, carefully designed and implemented pedagogical features, and a wide choice of ancillaries designed to review and augment both in-class and out-of-class student activities.

II. Intended Audience

The level is geared toward students in one-semester courses in anatomy and physiology who are pursuing careers in allied health fields and who have minimal background in physical and biological sciences. The first four chapters cover the chemistry and cell physiology necessary to understand biological processes. Students who have studied this material previously will view it as a welcomed review, but newcomers will not find it intimidating.

III. General Themes

Commitment to Readability

Even the most basic concepts of human anatomy and physiology can be challenging to the uninitiated, and most of the students in introductory anatomy and physiology courses fall into this category. Students and instructors both are faced with an enormous amount of material to cover in a short period of time. Our approach is to never add unnecessary content, and to maintain readability as our top priority.

Clear Application of Concepts

The content carefully balances structure and function to provide an integrated view of how the human body works. In striking this balance we recognize a clear trend toward a greater emphasis on physiology across the board in the health care professions. All physiological concepts are tied to some level of body structure and organization and presented in a student-accessible way. Numerous practical applications and everyday examples are provided.

Emphasis of the Interrelatedness and Interdependency of Organ Systems

Chapter 1 introduces the concept of the internal environment, along with homeostasis, the mechanism that keeps the internal environment relatively constant. The book reinforces this theme throughout, most strikingly in the end-of-chapter "ORGANization" figures that hammer home the interrelatedness and interdependency of organ systems.

Enhancing the Text with Consistent Illustrations

Detail, clarity, accuracy, and consistency prevail, with frequent use of icons for orientation and to establish a sense of scale. Color is consistent from chapter to chapter-a cell nucleus is not blue in one chapter, orange in another.

IV. Pedagogical Themes

Keeping the Punchline Up Front

Each chapter begins with a true vignette usually related to health care-most of which are new to this edition. Some vignettes focus on technology (cloning, stem cell technology, tissue engineering, and blood substitutes); some describe how poisoning disrupts physiology (Napoleon and arsenic; mercury poisoning of a chemist; carbon monoxide poisoning); others introduce medical conditions (color blindness, excess sweating, post-polio syndrome); or discuss the peculiar (smelly T shirt experiments, clues from skeletons past). Along with accompanying photographs, these vignettes entice the student by revealing the relevance of chapter material. Some tales may be familiar from news reports; others introduce new individuals. The chapter opening vignettes may suggest possible careers, as they vividly apply chapter principles.

Genetic Basis for Health and Disease

A new feature called Genetics Connection explores the molecular underpinnings of familiar as well as not-so-familiar illnesses. These boxes address ion channel disorders (chapter 3); muscular dystrophies (chapter 8); inherited immune deficiencies (chapter 14); cystic fibrosis (chapter 16); and fetal chromosome tests (chapter 20).

Interdependency of Organ Systems to Maintain Homeostasis

Each of the eleven body systems chapters concludes with a full-page illustration, entitled ORGANization, that describes the interrelatedness of organ systems, a generalized theme of this edition. This integrated approach is central to understanding anatomy and physiology, but all too often, students study each chapter in an isolated manner and miss how one system relates to other systems. The ORGANization illustrations review at-a-glance such organ systems interactions. They can be springboards for class discussion, or suggest ideas for further study or research papers (Sounds like these suggestions are for teachers, but they are for you students, too!). The illustrations help review chapter concepts and reinforce the "big picture" in learning and applying the principles of anatomy and physiology.

The Seventh Edition

This revision appears a full year ahead of schedule in order to update five chapters that present rapidly changing areas in anatomy and physiology (cells, muscle physiology, respiratory physiology, immunology, and pregnancy and development). We have weighed heavily reviewers' observations and suggestions in these areas and have made corrections, updated terminology, and upgraded the physiology. Other chapters have been similarly revised, but to a lesser degree. In all cases we have been careful to preserve the readable, student-friendly approach that has characterized previous editions.

Essential Study Partner

The Essential Study Partner CD-ROM is an interactive student study tool packed with hundreds of animations and learning activities. From quizzes to interactive diagrams, students will find that there has never been a more exciting way to study anatomy and physiology. A self-quizzing feature allows students to check their knowledge of a topic before moving on to a new module. Additional unit exams give students the opportunity to review coverage for a more complete understanding. This CD-ROM tutorial supports and enhances the material presented in Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7th edition and is packaged free when students purchase a new textbook. In addition to the study activities and quizzes, a film icon is placed in the text beside topics and concepts that are animated on the CD-ROM. These animations will ease students into a better understanding of the most difficult topics.

Online Learning Center

When a student uses Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7th edition, the student is getting much more than a textbook. A multitude of learning opportunities are included on the password protected web site. Access to an Online Learning Center provides quizzes, links, case studies, clinical applications, and a world of ways to explore anatomy and physiology.

The Online Learning Center features both Student Resources and Instructor Resources. For students who want an edge in their course, they'll have immediate access to additional study questions, problem-solving exercises, applications, and much more-all in one place. The Online Learning Center gives students the password to success. A free password to the Online Learning Center Student Resources is available with the purchase of a new textbook.

Instructors will gain access to lecture outlines, illustrations from the textbook, templates to help build a web site course, suggested classroom activities, and a host of ways to enhance their anatomy and physiology course.

V. Learning Aids

Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology is written with the student in mind. Several features ease learning difficult concepts and terminology.

Chapter Objectives

Before beginning to study a chapter, carefully read the chapter objectives. These indicate what a student should be able to do after mastering the information within the narrative. The review exercises at the end of each chapter are phrased as detailed objectives, and reading them before beginning to study is also helpful. Both the chapter objectives and the review exercises are guides that identify important chapter topics.

Aids to Understanding Words

Aids to Understanding Words, found at the beginning of each chapter and in the appendix, help build vocabulary. These sections define root words, stems, prefixes, and suffixes that help the student discover word meanings, and then apply these definitions in example words. Studying these lists will help with understanding and remembering scientific word meanings.

Key Terms

A list of key terms and their phonetic pronunciations at the beginning of each chapter helps build science vocabulary. The key terms are boldfaced and defined within the chapter and are likely to be found in subsequent chapters as well. The glossary at the end of the book explains phonetic pronunciations.

Review Questions within the Narrative

This edition continues to have review questions at the ends of major sections in each chapter to test understanding of the material just covered.


Art pieces are designed to support the text and beyond. Labels and legends go only as far as the text itself. However, the detail of the figures is accurate enough to support more detailed discussion if the instructor or the student chooses further investigation.

Boxed Information

Short paragraphs in colored boxes apply ideas and facts in the narrative to clinical situations. Some boxes describe changes in body structure and function that result from disease.

Genetics Connections

A new feature called Genetics Connection explores the molecular underpinnings of familiar as well as not-so-familiar illnesses.

Topics of Interest

Longer boxes, entitled "Topic of Interest," are new or rewritten. They discuss disorders, physiological responses to environmental factors, and other topics of general interest.

ORGANization Illustrations

ORGANization illustrations, found at the end of selected chapters, conceptually link the highlighted body system to every other system and reinforce the dynamic interplays between groups of organs. These graphic representations stress the "big picture" in learning and applying anatomy and physiology.

Clinical Terms

At the end of many chapters are lists of related terms often used in clinical situations. These terms, along with their phonetic pronunciations and brief definitions, are helpful to understanding medical terminology.

Chapter Summaries

An end-of-chapter summary in outline form helps you review the chapter's main ideas.

Review Exercises and Critical Thinking

End-of-chapter review exercises check understanding of the chapter's major ideas. Critical thinking questions, many of them new, coax you to apply information to clinical situations.

Reference Plates

Reference plates continue to be a strong feature in this edition. One set illustrates the structure and location of major internal organs. Its white background improves contrast, making the art more vibrant and detail easier to see. Another set of reference plates depicts the structural detail of the human skull. All reference plates have a colored tab down the length of the page for easy access.

Multimedia Tie-ins

A dancing man icon \ also appears in many figure legends. This icon represents the Dynamic Human CD-ROM and signals the reader that information relating to this figure is on the CD-ROM. The Dynamic Human CD-ROM can be packaged with Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology for free. A correlation guide is at the end of the preface on p. xxii-xxiii.

A videotape icon appears in many figure legends. This icon alerts the reader that an animation related to the figure is available from the WCB Life Science Animations videotape series. The tapes are available to qualified adopters and cover such topics as cell division, genetics, and reproduction. A correlation guide is included in this preface on p. xxiv.

A new Life Science Animation 3D Videotape with forty-two key biological processes is included in these correlations. A correlation guide is included in this preface on p. xxi.

Unit and Chapter Tabs

Colored tabs on page edges highlight unit and chapter openers and provide easier reference.

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