Table of Contents

Preface xv

Unit 1 Levels of Organization

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 1

Chapter Objectives 2

Aids to Understanding Words 2

Key Terms 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Anatomy and Physiology 4

1.3 Characteristics of Life 4

1.4 Maintenance of Life 5

Requirements of Organisms 5

Homeostasis 6

1.5 Levels of Organization 7

1.6 Organization of the Human

Body 9

Body Cavities 9

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes 11

Organ Systems 12

1.7 Anatomical Terminology 14

Relative Positions 14

Body Sections 14

Body Regions 14

Some Medical and Applied

Sciences 18

Summary Outline 18

Review Exercises 20

Critical Thinking 21

Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life 30

Chapter Objectives 31

Aids to Understanding Words 31

Key Terms 31

2.1 Introduction 32

2.2 Structure of Matter 32

Elements and Atoms 32

Atomic Structure 32

Bonding of Atoms 33

Molecules and Compounds 35

Formulas 37

Chemical Reactions 37

Acids and Bases 38

2.3 Chemical Constituents of Cells 39

Inorganic Substances 39

Organic Substances 39

Summary Outline 45

Review Exercises 46

Critical Thinking 46

Chapter 3 Cells 47

Chapter Objectives 48

Aids to Understanding Words 48

Key Terms 48

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Composite Cell 49

Cell Membrane 49

Cytoplasm 52

Cell Nucleus 56

3.3 Movements through Cell Membranes 57

Passive Mechanisms 57

Active Mechanisms 61

3.4 The Cell Cycle 64

Interphase 65

Mitosis 65

Cytoplasmic Division 65

Cell Differentiation 65

Cell Death 69

Summary Outline 69

Review Exercises 70

Critical Thinking 70

Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism 72

Chapter Objectives 73

Aids to Understanding Words 73

Key Terms 73

4.1 Introduction 74

4.2 Metabolic Reactions 74

Anabolism 74

Catabolism 74

4.3 Control of Metabolic Reactions 75

Enzyme Action 75

Factors That Alter Enzymes 76

4.4 Energy for Metabolic Reactions 77

Release of Chemical Energy 77

Glycolysis 77

Aerobic Respiration 78

ATP Molecules 78

4.5 Metabolic Pathways 78

Carbohydrate Pathways 78

Lipid Pathways 80

Protein Pathways 81

Regulation of Metabolic Pathways 82

4.6 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 82

Genetic Information 82

DNA Molecules 82

Genetic Code 86

RNA Molecules 86

Protein Synthesis 87

DNA Replication 89

Summary Outline 93

Review Exercises 94

Critical Thinking 94

Chapter 5 Tissues 95

Chapter Objectives 96

Aids to Understanding Words 96

Key Terms 96

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Epithelial Tissues 97

General Characteristics 97

Simple Squamous Epithelium 97

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 97

Simple Columnar Epithelium 98

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium 99

Stratified Squamous Epithelium 99

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium 100

Stratified Columnar Epithelium 100

Transitional Epithelium 100

Glandular Epithelium 102

5.3 Connective Tissues 104

General Characteristics 104

Loose Connective Tissue 105

Adipose Tissue 105

Dense Connective Tissue 106

Cartilage 106

Bone 107

Blood 109

5.4 Muscle Tissues 110

General Characteristics 110

Skeletal Muscle Tissue 110

Smooth Muscle Tissue 110

Cardiac Muscle Tissue 110

5.5 Nervous Tissues 112

Summary Outline 113

Review Exercises 114

Critical Thinking 114

Unit 2 Support and Movement

Chapter 6 Skin and the Integumentary

System 115

Chapter Objectives 116

Aids to Understanding Words 116

Key Terms 116

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Types of Membranes 117

6.3 Skin and Its Tissues 117

Epidermis 117

Skin Color 119

Dermis 120

Subcutaneous Layer 120

6.4 Accessory Organs of the Skin 120

Hair Follicles 120

Sebaceous Glands 121

Nails 122

Sweat Glands 123

6.5 Regulation of Body

Temperature 123

6.6 Healing of Wounds 125

Common Skin Disorders 126

ORGANization 127

Summary Outline 128

Review Exercises 129

Critical Thinking 129

Chapter 7 Skeletal System 130

Chapter Objectives 131

Aids to Understanding Words 131

Key Terms 132

7.1 Introduction 132

7.2 Bone Structure 132

Parts of a Long Bone 132

Microscopic Structure 133

7.3 Bone Development and

Growth 134

Intramembranous Bones 134

Endochondral Bones 134

Homeostasis of Bone Tissue 135

7.4 Bone Function 137

Support and Protection 137

Body Movement 138

Blood Cell Formation 138

Storage of Inorganic Salts 139

7.5 Skeletal Organization 140

7.6 Skull 142

Cranium 142

Facial Skeleton 146

Infantile Skull 147

7.7 Vertebral Column 147

A Typical Vertebra 147

Cervical Vertebrae 148

Thoracic Vertebrae 150

Lumbar Vertebrae 150

Sacrum 150

Coccyx 150

7.8 Thoracic Cage 152

Ribs 152

Sternum 152

7.9 Pectoral Girdle 153

Clavicles 153

Scapulae 154

7.10 Upper Limb 155

Humerus 155

Radius 156

Ulna 157

Hand 157

7.11 Pelvic Girdle 158

7.12 Lower Limb 160

Femur 160

Tibia 160

Fibula 161

Foot 161

7.13 Joints 162

Fibrous Joints 162

Cartilaginous Joints 162

Synovial Joints 162

Types of Joint Movements 166

Clinical Terms Related to the Skeletal System 168

ORGANization 169

Summary Outline 170

Review Exercises 172

Critical Thinking 172

Chapter 8 Muscular System 176

Chapter Objectives 177

Aids to Understanding Words 177

Key Terms 177

8.1 Introduction 178

8.2 Structure of a Skeletal

Muscle 178

Connective Tissue

Coverings 178

Skeletal Muscle Fibers 179

Neuromuscular Junction 181

Motor Units 181

8.3 Skeletal Muscle Contraction 182

Role of Myosin and Actin 182

Stimulus for Contraction 183

Energy Sources for

Contraction 184

Oxygen Supply and Cellular Respiration 184

Oxygen Debt 185

Muscle Fatigue 185

Heat Production 186

8.4 Muscular Responses 186

Threshold Stimulus 186

All-or-None Response 186

Recording a Muscle Contraction 188

Summation 188

Recruitment of Motor Units 188

Sustained Contractions 188

8.5 Smooth Muscle 190

Smooth Muscle Fibers 190

Smooth Muscle Contraction 190

8.6 Cardiac Muscle 190

8.7 Skeletal Muscle Actions 192

Origin and Insertion 192

Interaction of Skeletal Muscles 193

8.8 Major Skeletal Muscles 193

Muscles of Facial Expression 193

Muscles of Mastication 196

Muscles That Move the Head 196

Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle 196

Muscles That Move the Arm 197

Muscles That Move the Forearm 199

Muscles That Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers 200

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall 200

Muscles of the Pelvic Outlet 202

Muscles That Move the Thigh 203

Muscles That Move the Leg 204

Muscles That Move the Ankle, Foot, and Toes 205

Clinical Terms Related to the Muscular System 206

ORGANization 208

Summary Outline 209

Review Exercises 210

Critical Thinking 212

Unit 3 Integration and Coordination

Chapter 9 Nervous System 213

Chapter Objectives 214

Aids to Understanding Words 215

Key Terms 215

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 General Functions of the Nervous System 215

9.3 Neuron Structure 216

9.4 Types of Neurons and Neuroglial Cells 218

Classification of Neurons 218

Classification of Neuroglial Cells 219

9.5 Cell Membrane Potential 220

Distribution of Ions 221

Resting Potential 221

Potential Changes 221

Action Potential 223

9.6 Nerve Impulse 223

Impulse Conduction 223

All-or-None Response 224

9.7 The Synapse 224

Synaptic Transmission 224

Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions 225

Neurotransmitters 225

9.8 Impulse Processing 227

Neuronal Pools 227

Facilitation 227

Convergence 227

Divergence 228

9.9 Types of Nerves 228

9.10 Nerve Pathways 229

Reflex Arcs 229

Reflex Behavior 229

9.11 Meninges 231

9.12 Spinal Cord 233

Structure of the Spinal Cord 233

Functions of the Spinal Cord 233

9.13 Brain 235

Structure of the Cerebrum 236

Functions of the Cerebrum 237

Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid 239

Diencephalon 241

Brain Stem 242

Cerebellum 243

9.14 Peripheral Nervous System 245

Cranial Nerves 245

Spinal Nerves 248

9.15 Autonomic Nervous System 249

General Characteristics 250

Autonomic Nerve Fibers 250

Autonomic Neurotransmitters 251

Control of Autonomic Activity 251

ORGANization 255

Clinical Terms Related to the Nervous System 256

Summary Outline 256

Review Exercises 258

Critical Thinking 259

Chapter 10 Somatic and Special Senses 260

Chapter Objectives 261

Aids to Understanding Words 261

Key Terms 262

10.1 Introduction 262

10.2 Receptors and Sensations 262

Types of Receptors 262

Sensations 262

Sensory Adaptation 262

10.3 Somatic Senses 262

Touch and Pressure Senses 262

Temperature Senses 263

Sense of Pain 264

10.4 Special Senses 266

10.5 Sense of Smell 266

Olfactory Receptors 266

Olfactory Organs 266

Olfactory Nerve Pathways 266

Olfactory Stimulation 266

10.6 Sense of Taste 268

Taste Receptors 268

Taste Sensations 268

Taste Nerve Pathways 268

10.7 Sense of Hearing 270

External Ear 270

Middle Ear 270

Auditory Tube 271

Inner Ear 271

Auditory Nerve Pathways 274

10.8 Sense of Equilibrium 274

Static Equilibrium 274

Dynamic Equilibrium 275

10.9 Sense of Sight 277

Visual Accessory Organs 277

Structure of the Eye 280

Light Refraction 285

Visual Receptors 285

Visual Pigments 285

Visual Nerve Pathways 286

Clinical Terms Related to the Senses 287

Summary Outline 288

Review Exercises 289

Critical Thinking 290

Chapter 11 Endocrine System 291

Chapter Objectives 292

Aids to Understanding Words 292

Key Terms 292

11.1 Introduction 293

11.2 General Characteristics of the Endocrine System 293

11.3 Hormone Action 293

Steroid Hormones 294

Nonsteroid Hormones 294

Prostaglandins 296

11.4 Control of Hormonal Secretions 296

Negative Feedback Systems 296

Control Sources 296

11.5 Pituitary Gland 298

Anterior Pituitary Hormones 298

Posterior Pituitary Hormones 300

11.6 Thyroid Gland 300

Structure of the Gland 300

Thyroid Hormones 300

11.7 Parathyroid Glands 303

Structure of the Glands 303

Parathyroid Hormone 303

11.8 Adrenal Glands 304

Structure of the Glands 304

Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla 304

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex 305

11.9 Pancreas 308

Structure of the Gland 308

Hormones of the Islets of Langerhans 308

11.10 Other Endocrine Glands 309

Pineal Gland 309

Thymus Gland 310

Reproductive Glands 310

Digestive Glands 310

Other Hormone-Producing Organs 312

11.11 Stress and Health 312

Types of Stress 312

Responses to Stress 312

Clinical Terms Related to the Endocrine System 312

ORGANization 316

Summary Outline 317

Review Exercises 318

Critical Thinking 319

Unit 4 Transport

Chapter 12 Blood 320

Chapter Objectives 321

Aids to Understanding Words 321

Key Terms 321

12.1 Introduction 322

12.2 Blood and Blood Cells 322

Blood Volume and Composition 322

Characteristics of Red Blood Cells 322

Red Blood Cell Counts 323

Destruction of Red Blood Cells 323

Red Blood Cell Production and Its Control 324

Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production 324

Types of White Blood Cells 326

White Blood Cell Counts 328

Functions of White Blood Cells 328

Blood Platelets 329

12.3 Blood Plasma 331

Plasma Proteins 331

Nutrients and Gases 331

Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances 332

Plasma Electrolytes 332

12.4 Hemostasis 333

Blood Vessel Spasm 333

Platelet Plug Formation 333

Blood Coagulation 333

12.5 Blood Groups and Transfusions 335

Antigens and Antibodies 335

ABO Blood Group 336

Rh Blood Group 338

Clinical Terms Related to the Blood 338

Summary Outline 339

Review Exercises 341

Critical Thinking 341

Chapter 13 Cardiovascular System 342

Chapter Objectives 343

Aids to Understanding Words 343

Key Terms 344

13.1 Introduction 344

13.2 Structure of the Heart 344

Size and Location of the Heart 344

Coverings of the Heart 344

Wall of the Heart 345

Heart Chambers and Valves 346

Skeleton of the Heart 348

Path of Blood through the Heart 348

Blood Supply to the Heart 349

13.3 Heart Actions 350

Cardiac Cycle 350

Heart Sounds 352

Cardiac Muscle Fibers 352

Cardiac Conduction System 353

Electrocardiogram 355

Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle 356

13.4 Blood Vessels 357

Arteries and Arterioles 357

Capillaries 359

Exchanges in Capillaries 361

Venules and Veins 362

13.5 Blood Pressure 363

Arterial Blood Pressure 363

Factors That Influence Arterial Blood Pressure 364

Control of Blood Pressure 364

Venous Blood Flow 366

13.6 Paths of Circulation 367

Pulmonary Circuit 367

Systemic Circuit 367

13.7 Arterial System 367

Principal Branches of the Aorta 367

Arteries to the Neck, Head, and Brain 367

Arteries to the Shoulder and Upper Limb 370

Arteries to the Thoracic and Abdominal Walls 370

Arteries to the Pelvis and Lower Limb 372

13.8 Venous System 372

Characteristics of Venous Pathways 372

Veins from the Brain, Head, and Neck 372

Veins from the Upper Limb and Shoulder 372

Veins from the Abdominal and Thoracic Walls 374

Veins from the Abdominal Viscera 375

Veins from the Lower Limb and Pelvis 375

ORGANization 378

Clinical Terms Related to the Cardiovascular System 379

Summary Outline 379

Review Exercises 381

Critical Thinking 381

Chapter 14 Lymphatic System and Immunity 382

Chapter Objectives 383

Aids to Understanding Words 383

Key Terms 383

14.1 Introduction 384

14.2 Lymphatic Pathways 384

Lymphatic Capillaries 384

Lymphatic Vessels 384

Lymphatic Trunks and Collecting Ducts 384

14.3 Tissue Fluid and Lymph 386

Tissue Fluid Formation 386

Lymph Formation and Function 386

14.4 Lymph Movement 386

14.5 Lymph Nodes 387

Structure of a Lymph Node 387

Locations of Lymph Nodes 388

Functions of Lymph Nodes 388

14.6 Thymus and Spleen 388

Thymus 388

Spleen 388

14.7 Body Defenses against Infection 390

14.8 Nonspecific Defenses 391

Species Resistance 391

Mechanical Barriers 391

Chemical Barriers 391

Fever 391

Inflammation 391

Phagocytosis 391

14.9 Specific Defenses (Immunity) 392

Antigens 392

Lymphocyte Origins 392

Lymphocyte Functions 393

T Cell Activation 393

B Cell Activation 394

Types of Antibodies 394

Antibody Actions 395

Immune Responses 398

Types of Acquired Immunity 398

Allergic Reactions 399

Transplantation and Tissue Rejection 400

Autoimmunity 401

ORGANization 404

Clinical Terms Related to the Lymphatic System and Immunity 405

Summary Outline 405

Review Exercises 407

Critical Thinking 408

Unit 5 Absorption and Excretion

Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition 409

Chapter Objectives 410

Aids to Understanding Words 410

Key Terms 410

15.1 Introduction 411

15.2 General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal 411

Structure of the Wall 411

Movements of the Tube 413

15.3 Mouth 413

Cheeks and Lips 413

Tongue 414

Palate 414

Teeth 414

15.4 Salivary Glands 417

Salivary Secretions 417

Major Salivary Glands 417

15.5 Pharynx and Esophagus 418

Structure of the Pharynx 418

Swallowing Mechanism 418

Esophagus 419

15.6 Stomach 419

Parts of the Stomach 420

Gastric Secretions 420

Regulation of Gastric Secretions 421

Gastric Absorption 421

Mixing and Emptying Actions 421

15.7 Pancreas 423

Structure of the Pancreas 423

Pancreatic Juice 423

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion 424

15.8 Liver 425

Liver Structure 425

Liver Functions 426

Composition of Bile 426

Gallbladder 427

Regulation of Bile Release 428

Functions of Bile Salts 429

15.9 Small Intestine 429

Parts of the Small Intestine 429

Structure of the Small Intestine Wall 430

Secretions of the Small Intestine 431

Regulation of Small Intestine Secretions 431

Absorption in the Small Intestine 432

Movements of the Small Intestine 434

15.10 Large Intestine 435

Parts of the Large Intestine 435

Structure of the Large Intestine Wall 436

Functions of the Large Intestine 436

Movements of the Large Intestine 437

Feces 437

15.11 Nutrition and Nutrients 437

15.12 Carbohydrates 437

Carbohydrate Sources 437

Carbohydrate Utilization 437

Carbohydrate Requirements 438

15.13 Lipids 438

Lipid Sources 438

Lipid Utilization 438

Lipid Requirements 438

15.14 Proteins 439

Protein Sources 439

Protein Requirements 440

15.15 Vitamins 440

Fat-Soluble Vitamins 440

Water-Soluble Vitamins 440

15.16 Minerals 441

Characteristics of Minerals 441

Major Minerals 441

Trace Elements 444

15.17 Adequate Diets 445

Clinical Terms Related to the Digestive System and Nutrition 445

ORGANization 446

Summary Outline 447

Review Exercises 449

Critical Thinking 450

Chapter 16 Respiratory System 451

Chapter Objectives 452

Aids to Understanding Words 452

Key Terms 452

16.1 Introduction 453

16.2 Organs of the Respiratory System 453

Nose 453

Nasal Cavity 453

Paranasal Sinuses 454

Pharynx 455

Larynx 455

Trachea 456

Bronchial Tree 456

Lungs 459

16.3 Breathing Mechanism 460

Inspiration 460

Expiration 462

Respiratory Air Volumes and Capacities 464

16.4 Control of Breathing 466

Respiratory Center 466

Factors Affecting Breathing 466

16.5 Alveolar Gas Exchanges 468

Alveoli 468

Respiratory Membrane 468

Diffusion across the Respiratory Membrane 468

16.6 Gas Transport 470

Oxygen Transport 470

Carbon Dioxide Transport 471

Clinical Terms Related to the Respiratory System 472

ORGANization 474

Summary Outline 475

Review Exercises 476

Critical Thinking 476

Chapter 17 Urinary System 478

Chapter Objectives 479

Aids to Understanding Words 479

Key Terms 479

17.1 Introduction 480

17.2 Kidneys 480

Location of the Kidneys 480

Kidney Structure 480

Kidney Functions 482

Renal Blood Vessels 482

Nephrons 483

17.3 Urine Formation 485

Glomerular Filtration 485

Filtration Pressure 486

Filtration Rate 486

Regulation of Filtration Rate 487

Tubular Reabsorption 488

Sodium and Water

Reabsorption 489

Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume 490

Urea and Uric Acid Excretion 490

Tubular Secretion 491

Urine Composition 492

17.4 Urine Elimination 492

Ureters 493

Urinary Bladder 493

Micturition 494

Urethra 495

Clinical Terms Related to the Urinary System 495

ORGANization 496

Summary Outline 497

Review Exercises 498

Critical Thinking 499

Chapter 18 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 500

Chapter Objectives 501

Aids to Understanding Words 501

Key Terms 501

18.1 Introduction 502

18.2 Distribution of Body Fluids 502

Fluid Compartments 502

Body Fluid Composition 502

Movement of Fluid between Compartments 503

18.3 Water Balance 504

Water Intake 504

Regulation of Water Intake 504

Water Output 505

Regulation of Water Output 505

18.4 Electrolyte Balance 508

Electrolyte Intake 508

Regulation of Electrolyte Intake 508

Electrolyte Output 508

Regulation of Electrolyte Output 508

18.5 Acid-Base Balance 509

Sources of Hydrogen Ions 509

Strengths of Acids and Bases 510

Regulation of Hydrogen Ion Concentration 510

Clinical Terms Related to Water and Electrolyte Balance 516

Summary Outline 516

Review Exercises 517

Critical Thinking 517

Unit 6

The Human Life Cycle

Chapter 19 Reproductive Systems 518

Chapter Objectives 519

Aids to Understanding Words 519

Key Terms 519

19.1 Introduction 520

19.2 Organs of the Male Reproductive System 520

Testes 520

Male Internal Accessory Organs 522

Male External Reproductive Organs 525

Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation 526

19.3 Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions 528

Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones 528

Male Sex Hormones 528

19.4 Organs of the Female Reproductive System 529

Ovaries 529

Female Internal Accessory Organs 533

Female External Reproductive Organs 534

Erection, Lubrication, and Orgasm 534

19.5 Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions 535

Female Sex Hormones 535

Female Reproductive Cycle 535

Menopause 536

19.6 Mammary Glands 537

19.7 Birth Control 539

Coitus Interruptus 539

Rhythm Method 539

Mechanical Barriers 539

Chemical Barriers 539

Oral Contraceptives 540

Injectable Contraception 541

Contraceptive Implants 541

Intrauterine Devices 542

Surgical Methods 542

19.8 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 543

ORGANization 544

Clinical Terms Related to the Reproductive Systems 545

Summary Outline 545

Review Exercises 547

Critical Thinking 548

Chapter 20 Pregnancy, Growth, and Development 549

Chapter Objectives 550

Aids to Understanding Words 550

Key Terms 550

20.1 Introduction 551

20.2 Pregnancy 551

Transport of Sex Cells 551

Fertilization 551

20.3 Prenatal Period 552

Early Embryonic Development 552

Hormonal Changes during Pregnancy 554

Embryonic Stage 558

Fetal Stage 562

Fetal Blood and Circulation 563

Birth Process 567

20.4 Postnatal Period 569

Milk Production and Secretion 569

Neonatal Period 570

Clinical Terms Related to Pregnancy, Growth, and Development 571

Summary Outline 572

Review Exercises 573

Critical Thinking 573

Appendix: Aids to Understanding Words 574

Glossary 575

Credits 592

Application Index 593

Subject Index 597

Home Page

feedback form | permissions | international | locate your campus rep | request a review copy

digital solutions | publish with us | customer service | mhhe home


Copyright ©2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
McGraw-Hill Higher Education is one of the many fine businesses of the The McGraw-Hill Companies.