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Chapter 17: The Endocrine System

Short Answer Questions

Chapter 17: The Endocrine System

1. Some hormones are produced by nerve cells called _______________.

2. The posterior pituitary releases only two hormones, _______________ and _______________.

3. Releasing and inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamusget to the anterior pituitary by way of blood vessels called the _______________.

4. Some endocrine glands elsewhere in the body suppress thesecretion of hormones by the pituitary. This is called _______________.

5. Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes _______________ if it occurs in childhood or adolescence and_______________ if it occurs in adulthood.

6. The metabolic rate is regulated by a large endocrine gland nearthe larynx called the _______________.

7. Hormones of the adrenal cortex fall into three categories: sexsteroids, _______________, and _______________.

8. The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of cell clusterscalled _______________.

9. Ninety percent of _______________ is caused by a lack of receptors for a pancreatic hormone,and cannot be treated with hormone injections.

10. The interstitial cells of the testis secrete _______________.

11. Thyroid hormone is hydrophobic and depends on a plasma protein, _______________, totransport it in the blood.

12. When a polypeptide hormone is first synthesized by a ribosome,it is in the form of an inactive precursor called a/an _______________.

13. Polypeptide hormones cannot enter their target cells and thusdepend on _______________ such as cAMP and IP3 to activate metabolic changes within them.

14. Two symptoms of diabetes mellitus are _______________, which means glucose in the urine, and_______________, which means an abnormally highlevel of glucose in the blood.

15. Because of the phenomenon of _______________, a single hormone molecule can ultimately cause a target cell toproduce millions of molecules of a metabolic product.

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