Chapter 4 Outline

Chemistry of Life

The chemistry of carbon accounts for the formation and diversity of organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Chapter Outline

In this chapter outline, the learning objectives and the selected key terms are given for each major head in the chapter.

Cells Contain Organic Molecules (p. 43)

1. Explain and demonstrate the bonding patterns of a carbon atom.
2. Recognize the various functional groups found in small organic molecules.
3. Distinguish between condensation of monomers and hydrolysis of polymers.
Selected Key Terms: organic molecule, inorganic molecule, hydrophilic, hydrophobic,
isomer, polymer, condensation, hydrolysis

Simple Sugars to Polysaccharides (p. 45)

4. Give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, and state
their functions.
5. Recognize the molecular and structural formulas for glucose.
carbohydrate, glucose, glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin

Fatty Acids to Lipids (p. 48)

6. Give examples of various lipids, and state their functions.
7. Recognize the structural formula for a saturated fatty acid, an unsaturated fatty
acid, and a fat.
lipid, fat, oil, phospholipid, steroid

Amino Acids to Proteins (p. 52)

8. Give examples of proteins, and state their functions.
9. Recognize an amino acid, and demonstrate how a peptide bond is formed.
10. Relate the four levels of protein structure to the bonding patterns observed at each
amino acid, protein, enzyme, peptide, peptide bond

Nucleotides to Nucleic Acids (p. 56)

11. State the two main types of nucleic acids and list their functions.
12. Explain the structure of a nucleotide and tell how nucleotides are joined to form a
nucleic acid.
13. Compare the structures of DNA and RNA.
14. Describe the structure and the function of ATP.
nucleotide, nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, complementary base pairing, ATP, ADP

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