The Roots of Western Civilization: The Ancient Middle East to 500 BC<BLURT>

The Roots of Western Civilization: The Ancient Middle East to 500 BC

1. Although early societies such as those responsible for Stonehenge demonstrate a number of the characteristics that define Western civilization, they lacked the critical feature of... A. differentiated social organization.
B. irrigation.
C. skill with tools.
D. writing.

2. Ancient slavery was not based upon which of the following conditions... A. indebtedness.
B. race.
C. the status of one's parents.
D. defeat in war.

3. People in the Fertile Crescent developed an organized society because... A. their pessimistic gods and demons required it.
B. the difficult environment required planning for successful irrigation.
C. it would enable them to defend themselves better from invading tribes.
D. elites required it.

4. Which of the following did Sumerian law not permit? A. prostitution
B. divorce
C. illegitimate children
D. adultery

5. When Sargon invaded Sumer in 2350 BC, what did he use to promote peace between Akkadians and Sumerians? A. religion
B. a legal code
C. satraps
D. ziggurats

6. Hammurabi's code... A. prohibited the idea that women were the property of their husbands.
B. included different punishments for the three social orders.
C. did not protect children from unfair treatment.
D. was intended to apply to only Hammurabi's period of rule.

7. What was one of the technological innovations of the Indo-Europeans? A. four-wheeled carts
B. bloodstone spears
C. battle-axes
D. an oral culture

8. Which of the following does not conform to the idea of ma'at? A. respect for the law
B. dedication to family
C. attaining wealth through warfare
D. the connection between behavior and prosperit.

9. During the First Intermediate Period, Egyptians experienced... A. greater prosperity.
B. the effective administration of a centralized government.
C. economic and political problems.
D. a loss of belief in immortality and the afterlife.

10. During her reign, Hatsheput pursued what kinds of policies? A. imperial expansion
B. an emphasis on religion at the expense of administration
C. trade, peace, and strong defense
D. her own personal enrichment

11. Ramses II managed to restore some of the former greatness of the Egyptian empire. After his rule,... A. successive rulers continued to enjoy similar success.
B. the Egyptian empire expanded.
C. challenges from invaders contributed to the downfall of the empire.
D. subsequent pharaohs turned to isolationist policies to preserve the empire.

12. The construction of the great temple in Jerusalem was accomplished with the skills of... A. Hittite metallurgy.
B. Phoenician craftsmen.
C. Egyptian pyramid builders.
D. Babylonian mathematics.

13. The most important commandment in the Hebrew legal tradition was based upon... A. dietary restrictions.
B. defining Jews as different from other peoples.
C. the idea that Yahweh demanded exclusive worship.
D. the Semitic language.

14. Which of the following was one of the benefits of exile for Jewish women? A. their exclusion from formal prayer
B. the shift to local worship
C. the strengthening of the family as a social and religious unit
D. the experience of concubinage

15. Assyrians were remarkable for their... A. advanced military techniques.
B. metallurgical skills.
C. adeptness with Aramaic.
D. disregard for learning and art.

16. Ashurbanipal played an important role in Western civilization because of... A. his dedication to the worship of a single god.
B. the great fortifications of Ninevah built under his rule.
C. embankments built to restrain the Euphrates.
D. his massive library, which preserved Mesopotamian literature.

17. Babylonians funded the construction of their magnificent city through... A. commerce.
B. tribute and taxation.
C. warfare and plunder.
D. the personal contributions of their rulers.

18. The city of Babylon fell so easily to the invading Persians because... A. it was poorly located and vulnerable to conquest.
B. Babylonian rulers had alienated even their own peoples and lacked support.
C. Babylonians were incompetent warriors.
D. the Persians possessed superior technology.

19. Zoroastrianism shared which of the following features with Judaism? A. a concern with ethics and justice
B. astrological predictions
C. belief in an afterlife
D. the connection between history and religion

20. What allowed the contributions of the Middle Eastern cultures to endure and influence the development of Western civilization? A. the persistence of religious beliefs
B. warfare
C. differentiated societies
D. patterns of interaction and cross-fertilization

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