|Vector Mechanics for Engineers Beer & Johnston|
The main objective of a first course in mechanics should be to develop in the engineering student the ability to analyze any problem in a simple and logical manner and to apply to its solution a few, well-understood, basic principles. This text is designed for the first courses in statics and dynamics offered in the sophomore or junior year, and it is hoped that it will help the instructor achieve this goal.
Vector analysis is introduced early in the text and used throughout the presentation of statics and dynamics. This approach leads to more concise derivations of the fundamental principles of mechanics. It also results in simpler solutions of three-dimensional problems in statics, and makes it possible to analyze many advanced problems in kinematics and kinetics, which could not be solved by scalar methods. The emphasis in this text, however, remains on the correct understanding of the principles of mechanics and on their application to the solution of engineering problems, and vector analysis is presented chiefly as a convenient tool.
One of the characteristics of the approach used in this book is that the mechanics of particles has been clearly separated from the mechanics of rigid bodies. This approach makes it possible to consider simple practical applications at an early stage and to postpone the introduction of the more difficult concepts. In statics, for example, the statics of particles is treated first (Chap. 2); after the rules of addition and subtraction of vectors have been introduced, the principle of equilibrium of a particle is immediately applied to practical situations involving only concurrent forces. The statics of rigid bodies is considered in Chaps. 3 and 4. In Chap. 3, the vector and scalar products of two vectors are introduced and used to define the moment of a force about a point and about an axis. The presentation of these new concepts is followed by a thorough and rigorous discussion of equivalent systems of forces leading, in Chap. 4, to many practical applications involving the equilibrium of rigid bodies under general force systems. In dynamics, the same division is observed. The basic concepts of force, mass, and acceleration, of work and energy, and of impulse and momentum are introduced and first applied to problems involving only particles. Thus, students may familiarize themselves with the three basic methods used in dynamics and learn their respective advantages before facing the difficulties associated with the motion of rigid bodies.
Since this text is designed for first courses in statics and dynamics, new concepts have been presented in simple terms and every step explained in detail. On the other hand, by discussing the broader aspects of the problems considered, and by stressing methods of general applicability, a definite maturity of approach has been achieved. For example, the concepts of partial constraints and of statical indeterminacy are introduced early in the text and used throughout statics. In dynamics, the concept of potential energy is discussed in the general case of a conservative force. Also, the study of the plane motion of rigid bodies has been designed to lead naturally to the study of their general motion in space. This is true in kinematics as well as in kinetics, where the principle of equivalence of external and effective forces is applied directly to the analysis of plane motion, thus facilitating the transition to the study of three-dimensional motion.
The fact that mechanics is essentially a deductive science based on a few fundamental principles has been stressed. Derivations have been presented in their logical sequence and with all the rigor warranted at this level. However, the learning process being largely inductive, simple applications have been considered first. Thus the statics of particles precedes the statics of rigid bodies, and problems involving internal forces are postponed until Chap. 6. Also, in Chap. 4, equilibrium problems involving only coplanar forces are considered first and solved by ordinary algebra, while problems involving three-dimensional forces and requiring the full use of vector algebra are discussed in the second part of the chapter. Again, the dynamics of particles precedes the dynamics of rigid bodies; and, in the latter, the fundamental principles of kinetics are first applied to the solution of two-dimensional problems, which can be more easily visualized by the student (Chaps. 16 and 17), while three-dimensional problems are postponed until Chap. 18.
The sixth edition of Vector Mechanics for Engineers retains the unified presentation of the principles of kinetics which characterized the previous editions. The concepts of linear and angular momentum are introduced in Chap. 12 so that Newton's second law of motion may be presented not only in its conventional form F=ma, but also as a law relating, respectively, the sum of the forces acting on a particle and the sum of their moments to the rates of change of the linear and angular momentum of the particle. This makes possible an earlier introduction of the principle of conservation of angular momentum and a more meaningful discussion of the motion of a particle under a central force (Sec. 12.9). More importantly, this approach can be readily extended to the study of the motion of a system of particles (Chap. 14) and leads to a more concise and unified treatment of the kinetics of rigid bodies in two and three dimensions (Chaps. 16 through 18).
Free-body diagrams are introduced early, and their importance is emphasized throughout the text. They are used not only to solve equilibrium problems but also to express the equivalence of two systems of forces or, more generally, of two systems of vectors. The advantage of this approach becomes apparent in the study of the dynamics of rigid bodies, where it is used to solve three-dimensional as well as two-dimensional problems. By placing the emphasis on "free-body-diagram equations" rather than on the standard algebraic equations of motion, a more intuitive and more complete understanding of the fundamental principles of dynamics can be achieved. This approach, which was first introduced in 1962 in the first edition of Vector Mechanics for Engineers, has now gained wide acceptance among mechanics teachers in this country. It is, therefore, used in preference to the method of dynamic equilibrium and to the equations of motion in the solution of all sample problems in this edition.
Color has been used, not only to enhance the quality of the illustrations, but also to help students distinguish among the various types of vectors they will encounter. While there was no intention to "color code" this text, the same color was used in any given chapter to represent vectors of the same type. Throughout statics, for example, red is used exclusively to represent forces and couples, while position vectors are shown in blue and dimensions in black. This makes it easier for the students to identify the forces acting on a given particle or rigid body and to follow the discussion of sample problems and other examples given in the text. In the chapters on kinetics, red is used again for forces and couples, as well as for effective forces. Red is also used to represent impulses and momenta in free-body-diagram equations, while green is used for velocities, and blue for accelerations. In the two chapters on kinematics, which do not involve any forces, blue, green, and red are used, respectively, for displacements, velocities, and accelerations.
Because of the current trend among American engineers to adopt the international system of units (SI metric units), the SI units most frequently used in mechanics have been introduced in Chap. 1 and are used throughout the text. Approximately half of the sample problems and 57 percent of the homework problems are stated in these units, while the remainder are in U.S. customary units. The authors believe that this approach will best serve the need of the students, who, as engineers, will have to be conversant with both systems of units. It also should be recognized that using both SI and U.S. customary units entails more than the use of conversion factors. Since the SI system of units is an absolute system based on the units of time, length, and mass, whereas the U.S. customary system is a gravitational system based on the units of time, length, and force, different approaches are required for the solution of many problems. For example, when SI units are used, a body is generally specified by its mass expressed in kilograms; in most problems of statics it will be necessary to determine the weight of the body in newtons, and an additional calculation will be required for this purpose. On the other hand, when U.S. customary units are used, a body is specified by its weight in pounds and, in dynamics problems, an additional calculation will be required to determine its mass in slugs (or lb• s2 /ft). The authors, therefore, believe that problem assignments should include both systems of units. A sufficient number of problems of each type are provided so that six different lists of assignments can be selected with an equal number of problems stated in SI units and in U.S. customary units. If so desired, two complete lists of assignments can also be selected with up to 75 percent of the problems stated in SI units.
A large number of optional sections have been included. These sections are indicated by asterisks and may thus easily be distinguished from those which form the core of the basic mechanics course. They may be omitted without prejudice to the understanding of the rest of the text. Among the topics covered in these additional sections in the statics portion of the text are the reduction of a system of forces to a wrench, applications to hydrostatics, shear and bending-moment diagrams for beams, equilibrium of cables, products of inertia and Mohr's circle, mass products of inertia and principal axes of inertia for three-dimensional bodies, and the method of virtual work. An optional section on the determination of the principal axes and moments of inertia of a body of arbitrary shape has also been included in this new edition (Sec. 9.18). The sections on beams are especially useful when the course in statics is immediately followed by a course in mechanics of materials, while the sections on the inertia properties of three-dimensional bodies are primarily intended for the students who will later study in dynamics the three-dimensional motion of rigid bodies. The topics covered in these sections in the dynamics portion of the text include graphical methods for the solution of rectilinear-motion problems, the trajectory of a particle under a central force, the deflection of fluid streams, problems involving jet and rocket propulsion, the kinematics and kinetics of rigid bodies in three dimensions, damped mechanical vibrations, and electrical analogues. These topics will be found of particular interest when dynamics is taught in the junior year.
The material presented in the text and most of the problems require no previous mathematical knowledge beyond algebra, trigonometry, and elementary calculus, and all the elements of vector algebra necessary to the understanding of the text have been carefully presented in Chaps. 2 and 3. However, special problems have been included, which make use of a more advanced knowledge of calculus, and certain sections, such as Secs. 19.8 and 19.9 on damped vibrations, should be assigned only if the students possess the proper mathematical background. In the portions of the text using elementary calculus, a greater emphasis has been placed on the correct understanding and application of the concepts of differentiation and integration than on the nimble manipulation of mathematical formulas. In this connection, it should be mentioned that the determination of the centroids of composite areas precedes the calculation of centroids by integration, thus making it possible to establish the concept of moment of area firmly before introducing the use of integration. The presentation of numerical solutions takes into account the universal use of calculators by engineering students and instructions on the proper use of calculators for the solution of typical statics problems have been included in Chap. 2.
Each chapter begins with an introductory section setting the purpose and goals of the chapter and describing in simple terms the material to be covered and its application to the solution of engineering problems. The body of the text has been divided into units, each consisting of one or several theory sections, one or several sample problems, and a large number of problems to be assigned. Each unit corresponds to a well-defined topic and generally can be covered in one lesson. In a number of cases, however, the instructor will find it desirable to devote more than one lesson to a given topic. Each chapter ends with a review and summary of the material covered in that chapter. Marginal notes are used to help students organize their review work, and cross-references have been included to help them find the portions of material requiring their special attention.
The sample problems are set up in much the same form that students will use when solving the assigned problems. They thus serve the double purpose of amplifying the text and demonstrating the type of neat and orderly work that students should cultivate in their own solutions.
A section entitled Solving Problems on Your Own has been added to each lesson, between the sample problems and the problems to be assigned. The purpose of these new sections is to help students organize in their own minds the preceding theory of the text and the solution methods of the sample problems so that they may more successfully solve the homework problems. Also included in these sections are specific suggestions and strategies which will enable the students to more efficiently attack any assigned problems.
Most of the problems are of a practical nature and should appeal to engineering students. They are primarily designed, however, to illustrate the material presented in the text and to help students understand the basic principles of mechanics. The problems have been grouped according to the portions of material they illustrate and have been arranged in order of increasing difficulty. Problems requiring special attention have been indicated by asterisks. Answers to 70 percent of the problems are given at the end of the book. Problems for which no answer is given are indicated by a number set in italic.
The inclusion in the engineering curriculum of instruction in computer programming and the increasing availability of personal computers or mainframe terminals on most campuses make it now possible for engineering students to solve a number of challenging dynamics problems. At one time these problems would have been considered inappropriate for an undergraduate course because of the large number of computations their solutions require. In this new edition of Vector Mechanics for Engineers, a group of problems designed to be solved with a computer has been included to the review problems at the end of each chapter. Many of these problems are relevant to the design process. In statics, they may involve the analysis of a structure for various configurations and loadings of the structure, or the determination of the equilibrium positions of a given mechanism which may require an iterative method of solution. In dynamics, they may involve the determination of the motion of a particle under various initial conditions, the kinematic or kinetic analysis of mechanisms in successive positions, or the numerical integration of various equations of motion. Developing the algorithm required to solve a given mechanics problem will benefit the students in two different ways: (1) it will help them gain a better understanding of the mechanics principles involved; (2) it will provide them with an opportunity to apply the skills acquired in their computer programming course to the solution of a meaningful engineering problem.
The authors wish to acknowledge the collaboration of Professors Elliot Eisenberg and Robert Sarubbi to this sixth edition of Vector Mechanics for Engineers and thank them especially for contributing many new and challenging problems. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions offered by the users of the previous editions of Mechanics for Engineers and of Vector Mechanics for Engineers.
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
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