In the more than twenty years that have passed since the publication of the first edition of this text, the study of manufacturing has found its rightful place in the engineering curriculum. Courses in manufacturing are being offered at various levels, from review courses given to incoming freshmen to intensive courses designed for juniors and seniors. There are also a growing number of graduate programs aimed at educating professionals capable of managing enterprises on a sound technological basis. To serve these diverse demands, various institutions have adopted or are in the midst of developing a variety of new techniques. This time period has also seen a spectacular growth in information technology, and this has had a major effect no only on manufacturing technology but also on the way manufacturing education is delivered. Every year, dozens of innovative approaches, many of them using the Web for enrichment or distance education. Are presented in conferences devoted to manufacturing education.
There has also been a marked shift in the attitudes of industry toward its clients: the loop between producer and consumer is indeed closing. Concurrent engineering, with input from the consumer, has become reality in many companies.
All of this has implications for the student and practicing engineer. A vast amount of information is now available, not just in the printed form but also on the Internet, and there is an increasing abundance of software that helps in designing products and processes. None of these can, however, be effectively utilized unless there is a sound understanding of the physical fundamentals of processes. This understanding must, therefore, be the aim of any course on manufacturing, irrespective of the level of its presentation.
The second edition of this text aimed at furthering this understanding by incorporation background material that some students may not have. The present edition continues to emphasize the physical basis and its relation to actual processes, but with some important changes. Mindful of the highly varied background of students and practicing engineers, the number of chapters has been increased to allow separation of the background material into chapters of its own. Those with only high school chemistry and physics can gain from these a sufficient foundation for the subsequent treatment of processes; those with knowledge of materials and mechanics can read them as refreshers, with an eye on their implications for manufacturing processes and product quality and properties. These chapters on background material are followed by a treatment of processes. Even a brief description of individual processes could fill several volumes; therefore, the emphasis here is on physical principles that are often common to several seemingly unrelated processes and can be applied to make reasoned judgments on the feasibility of a proposed solution.
While common threads are woven through the text, it is recognized that—more often than not—the instructor will have to select a limited number of topics and present them in an order different from that in the text. To facilitate this, copious cross-references are made to essential elements preceding a given discussion. With these considerations in mind, the subject matter is divided into three broad groups.
Chapters1—5 prepare the subject: Chap.1 offers a general view of the importance of manufacturing to humankind; Chap.2 outlines the interaction of design and manufacturing and introduces basic concepts of process control; Chap.3 deals with geometry, dimensions, and surface quality; and Chap.4 with the service properties expected of a manufacture product. The last two of these chapters also discuss the measurement techniques that will be used for manufacturing control. Chapter 5 is new, narrowing the focus to the interactions between product design, material selection, and process choice in concurrent engineering. Recycling and health and environmental concerns are addressed in this chapter and throughout the text.
Chapters 6—20 deal with processes in the sequence to which a material is usually subjected. Basic concepts and their applications are first demonstrated on metals: Chap. 6 discusses solidification in preparation for casting (Chap.7) and Welding (Chap.18), and Chap. 8 serves as preparation for deformation processes such as bulk deformation (Chap. 9) and sheet metalworking (Chap. 10). Particulate technologies are presented first for metals (Chap. 11) then, after some introduction to the structure and properties of ceramics, to the processing of ceramics (Chap. 12). The background to plastics (Chap. 13) lays the groundwork for a much expanded treatment of plastics processing (Chap. 14), and all the preceding material is drawn upon in the new Chap. 15 on composites. Metal removal y chip forming (chap. 16) and non-traditional technique (Chap. 17) is followed by the additive processes of joining (chap. 18) with their application to solid free-form fabrication. A new chapter on surface treatments (chap. 19) brings these highly varied technologies together. A brief introduction to solid-state electronics is followed by a discussions of processes for the manufacture of sold-state devices, and this lays the foundations of microfabrication for the production of microelectromechanical systems, surely one of the growth areas in manufacturing.
The last two chapters are devoted to the organization and competitive aspects of manufacturing, including an exploration of competition between processes discussed in the main section.
New developments are highlighted in all process chapters. Thus, the student will get a fell for cutting-edge technologies and precision manufacturing. Examples drawn from recent applications demonstrate the relevance of principles and techniques. Wherever justified, quantitative treatments are included, often with the use of spreadsheets.
For the practice of concurrent engineering, the manufacturing engineer must be able to interact with product designers, and the product designer must have at least a basic feel for the process consequences of a design decision. For this reason, the design implications of processes are emphasized throughout. Thus, the design of a product can be developed and judged not on the basis of sterile rules but with a fuller understanding of the reasoning behind these rules. To aid a better comprehension of process relationships, a classification of processes is given in each process chapter, and summarized in tables. Together with chapter-end summaries, they can be used to give an appreciation of technologies that had to be skipped because of time constraints.
Problems have been expanded and are presented in three groups: simple review questions; problems calling for reasoned judgement; and problems requiring quantitative answers. Several of them are suitable for examinations.
A comprehensive Instructor’s Manual is provided to adopters of the text. Since the material presented here cannot possibly be covered in a one-semester course, suggestions are given to help in selecting sections for courses serving different aims, with due regard for the level of preparation of students. There are full solutions to all problem statements, even to review questions. Since all too often more than one alternative solution is acceptable, answers are given with explanations and hints, and sufficient detail is provided to allow marking by teaching assistants. Derivations of text equations are shown in a form suitable for reproduction and distribution to students. Suggestions for teaching aids are included.
I am greatly indebted to many colleagues who critically reviewed specific sections, particularly
H. W. Kerr, A. Plumtree, C. Tzoganakis, R. Varin, and M. Worswick of the University of Waterloo and D. Edelstein, O IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. In addition to the companies and individuals specifically acknowledged in the text, I received helpful information from P.H. Abramowitz and D.A. Yeager (Ford), T. Altan (Ohio State University), R. A. Crockett (Lockheed Martin), K. F. Hens (Thermat), T.E.Howson(Wyman-Gordon), M. L. Devenpeck and H. R. Zonker (Alcoa), S. R. Larrabee and C. J. Rogers (Modine), F. Norris (Howmet), J. D. Schreiber (American Superconductor), J. Stump (GE Aircraft Engines), and A.J.K. Tubman (Tubman Marketing).
I benefited greatly from the helpful comments and criticisms of the reviewers of the manuscript, L. R. Cornwell (Texas A&M University), A. S. EI-Gizawy (University of Misouri at Columbia), J. G. Lenard(University of Waterloo, Ontario), D.G.Tomer (Rochester Institute of Technology), and A.A Tseng (Arizona State University). Valuable suggestions were made by the reviewers of the revision plan, X.D.Fang (Iowa State University), J. K. Gershenon (University of Alabama), D.Hall (Louisiana Technological University), D.W. Radford (Coloradeo State University) and J. Warner (Milwaukee School of Engineering).
I was most fortunate indeed to have the support of McGraw-Hill personnel, in particular, Jonathan Plant, editor, and Kristen Druffner, editorial assistant; Kimberly Moranda, project manager, and Rose Range, supplements coordinator. I am indebted also to John Corrigan and Debra Riegert who initiated this revision. As with the previous editions, my wife Gitta shared the task and provided support through many long months.
Waterloo, Ontario, May 1999
John A. Schey