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Concept 16: Nutrition


Glossary

Concept 16: Nutrition



Amino Acids
  Twenty basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins.
 
Antioxidants
  Vitamins (C, E, and plant forms of A or beta carotene) that are thought to inactivate "activated oxygen molecules" sometimes called "free radicals". Free radicals are naturally created by human cells but are also caused by environmental factors such as smoke and radiation. Free radicals may cause cell damage that leads to diseases of various kinds. If antioxidant vitamins work, they would inactivate the free radicals before they do their damage.
 
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  Metabolic rate at rest.
 
Carbohydrate Loading
  Extra consumption of complex carbohydrates in the days prior to a long, sustained performance.
 
Cellulose
  Indigestible fiber (bulk) in foods.
 
Ergogenic Aid
  In this concept, this term will refer to a nutritional supplement claimed by its promoters to improve performance.
 
Essential Amino Acids
  Nine basic amino acids that the human body cannot produce and that must be obtained from food sources.
 
Fiber
  Indigestible bulk in foods.
 
Glycogen
  A source of energy stored in the muscles and liver that is necessary for sustained physical activity.
 
Metabolic Rate (MR)
  The rate at which the body produces heat that is measured in calories; an indication of the body’s activities, including exercise and normal body functions.
 
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
  The minimum amount of a specific nutrient that should be included in the daily diet to meet current health needs.
 
Saturated Fat
  Dietary fat that is usually solid at room temperature and comes primarily from animal sources.
 
Trans Fatty Acids
  Fats that result when liquid oil has hydrogen added to it to make it more solid. "Hydrogenation" transforms unsaturated fats so that they take on characteristics of saturated fats, as is the case for margarine and shortening.
 
Unsaturated Fat
  Monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat that is usually liquid at room temperature and comes primarily from vegetable sources.
 
Vegan
  A strict vegetarian who not only excludes all forms of meat from the diet, but also excludes dairy products and eggs.

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