Book Cover  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 3e   Corbin
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Concept 6: The Health Benefits of Physical Activity


Glossary

Concept 6: The Health Benefits of Physical Activity



Angina Pectoris
  Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
 
Arteriosclerosis
  Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and non-elastic.
 
Atherosclerosis
  The deposition of materials along the arterial walls; a type of arteriosclerosis.
 
Chronic Disease
  A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environmental factors as opposed to infectious diseases (hypokinetic diseases are considered to be chronic diseases).
 
Congestive Heart Failure
  The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life-sustaining rate.
 
Coronary Collateral Circulation
  Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood-carrying capacity of a specific vessel or development of collateral vessels (extra blood vessels).
 
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
  Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, including heart attack.
 
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  A broad classification of diseases of the heart and blood vessels that include CHD as well has high blood pressure, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.
 
Coronary Occlusion
  The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.
 
Diastolic Blood Pressure
  The second blood pressure often called "resting pressure". It is the pressure in the arteries at its lowest level occurring just before the next beat of the heart.
 
Emotional Storm
  A traumatic emotional experience that is likely to affect the human organism physiologically.
 
Fibrin
  The substance that in combination with blood cells forms a blood clot.
 
High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
  A blood substance that picks up cholesterol and helps remove it from the body; often called "good cholesterol."
 
Hyperkinetic Condition
  A disease/illness or health condition caused by or contributed to by too much physical activity.
 
Hypertension
  High blood pressure.
 
Hypokinetic Diseases or Conditions
  Hypo means "under" or "too little," and kinetic means movement or activity. Thus, hypokinetic means "too little activity." A hypokinetic disease or condition is associated with lack of physical activity or too little regular exercise. Examples of such conditions include heart disease, low back pain, adult-onset diabetes, and obesity.
 
Insulin
  A hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates levels of sugar in the blood.
 
Insulin Sensitivity
  A condition that occurs when insulin becomes ineffective or less effective than is necessary to regulate sugar levels in the blood.
 
Insulin Resistance
  A person with insulin resistance has decreased insulin sensitivity-the body’s cells are not sensitive to insulin so they resist it and sugar levels are not regulated as they should be.
 
Lipids
  All fats and fatty substances.
 
Lipoprotein
  Fat-carrying protein in the blood.
 
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
  A core of cholesterol surrounded by protein; the core is often called "bad cholesterol."
 
Osteoporosis
  A condition associated with low bone density and subsequent bone fragility leading to high risk of fracture.
 
Parasympathetic Nervous System
  Branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate.
 
Peripheral Vascular Disease
  Lack of oxygen supply to the working muscles and tissues of the arms and legs resulting from decreased blood supply.
 
Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident or CVA)
  A condition in which the brain, or part of the brain, receives insufficient oxygen as a result of diminished blood supply; sometimes called apoplexy.
 
Sympathetic Nervous System
  Branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity by speeding up the heart rate.
 
Systolic Blood Pressure
  The upper blood pressure number often called working blood pressure. It represents the pressure in the arteries at its highest level just after the heart beats.
 
Triglyceride
  A type of blood fat associated with increased risk of heart disease.

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