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Concept 11: Muscle Fitness
Concept 11: Muscle Fitness
The Basic Facts About Strength and Muscular Endurance
- There are three types of muscle tissue.
- Some experts suggest that strength training exercises tend to selectively
develop fast-twitch muscle fibers and muscular endurance training selectively
develops slow-twitch fibers.
- Genetics, gender and age effect muscle fitness performance.
- Some endurance tests penalize the weaker person.
- Muscular endurance is related to cardiovascular endurance, but it is not
the same thing.
Facts About the Health Benefits of Muscle Fitness
- Good muscle fitness is associated with reduced risk of injury.
- Good muscle fitness is associated with good posture and reduced risk of
- Good muscle fitness can bring about improved athletic performance.
- Good muscular fitness is associated with wellness.
The Facts About Progressive Resistance Exercise
- The best type of training for muscle fitness is referred to as progressive
- Progressive resistance exercise is not the same thing as weight lifting,
power lifting, or body building.
- Progressive resistance exercise programs can be performed in a variety of
ways and with different equipment.
- Isotonic exercise (also called dynamic) refers to such activities
as weight training, calisthenics, pulley weights and resistance machine exercises.
- Isometric exercises involve non-moving or static contractions
- Isokinetic exercises are isotonic-concentric muscle contractions
performed on devices such as the Apollo, Exer-Genie, Mini-Gym, Hydra-Fitness
(hydraulic machine) or on electromechanical dynamometers, such as the Cybex
II. These machines keep the velocity of the movement constant and match their
resistance to the effort of the performer, permitting maximal tension to be
exerted throughout the range of motion.
- Plyometrics is a form of isotonic exercise that promotes athletic performance.
- There are advantages of both free weights and machine weights for progressive
- Many resistance training exercises can be done with little or no equipment.
Facts About How Much PRE Is Enough
- The overload principle must be applied using progressive resistance exercises
such as those in the muscle fitness section of the Physical Activity Pyramid
if muscle fitness is to be developed and maintained.
- The amount of overload for strength is different than for muscular endurance.
- Muscular endurance and strength are part of the same continuum.
- The intensity of muscle fitness training is determined using a percentage
of the amount of weight you can lift one time (1RM).
- The principle of specificity applies to Progressive Resistance Exercise
- The principle of diminishing returns applies to resistance training.
- The principle of rest and recovery especially applies to strength development.
- The amount of exercise necessary to maintain strength is less than the amount
needed to develop it.
- There is a threshold of training and a target zone for strength development.
- There is a threshold of training and a target zone for muscular endurance
The Facts About Using PRE Effectively
- The muscle fitness workout should be based on the principle of progression.
- There are various systems available regarding the order and progression
of exercises in a workout.
- Circuit Resistance Training (CRT) is an effective way to build muscular
endurance and cardiovascular endurance.
- Programs intended to slim the figure/physique should be of the muscular
- Endurance training may have a negative effect on strength and power.
Is There Strength in a Bottle? The Facts
- Anabolic steroids are used by some athletes, and a significant number of
non-athletes to enhance performance and build muscular bodies.
- Taking anabolic steroids is not considered to be a safe way to build muscle
- Injuries happen more easily and last longer in people who use steroids.
- Human growth hormone (HGH) taken to increase strength may be even more dangerous
than taking anabolic steroids.
- Creatine use is becoming increasingly popular as among people training for
- Some people have turned to other dietary supplements and "glandular
extract", that have been promoted as safe substitutes for anabolic steroids.
Facts About the Health Benefits of PRE
- Performing PRE has benefits in addition to those that result from having
good muscle fitness.
- PRE is associated with reduce risk of osteoporosis.
- PRE is contributes to weight control and looking your best.
- A combined strength/muscular endurance program provides most of the health
benefits associated with PRE.
Facts About PRE Methods
- There is a proper way to perform resistance training. – See Guidelines
- Most injuries can be prevented by using correct technique and proper care.
- There are many fallacies, myths, and superstitions associated with strength
training. – See list of myths in text.
Strategies for Action: The Facts
- An important step in taking action to for developing and maintaining muscle
fitness is assessing your current status.
- Many factors other than your own basic abilities effect muscle fitness test
- Choose exercises that build muscle fitness in the major muscle groups of
- Keeping records of progress is important to adhering to a PRE program
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