Book Cover  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 3e   Corbin
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Concept 12: Safe Physical Activity and Exercise


Glossary

Concept 12: Safe Physical Activity and Exercise



Bursa
  Small sac filled with fluid and situated between muscles, or between muscles and bones, to prevent friction.
 
Hyperflexion
  Bending (flexing) a joint more than normal; excessive bending.
 
Hyperventilation
  "Overbreathing"; forced, rapid, or deep breathing.
 
Microtrauma
  Injury so small it is not detected at the time it occurs.
 
Pyriformis Syndrome
  Muscle spasm and nerve entrapment in the pyriformis muscle of the buttocks region causing pain in the buttock and referred pain down the leg (sciatica).
 
Sciatica
  Pain along the sciatic nerve in the buttock and leg.
 
Shearing Force
  A force tending to make vertebrae or other bones slide on each other parallel to their plane of contact.
 
Spondylolisthesis
  A neck disorder associated with poor alignment of the vertebrae, of the neck.
 
Spondylolysis
  A stress fracture of a vertebra of the neck.
 
Torque
  A twisting or rotating force.
 
Valsalva Maneuver
  Exerting force with the epiglottis closed, thus increasing pressure in the thorax and raising arterial pressure. When released, arterial pressure drops rapidly, blood vessels expand and are then filled, causing a lag in blood flow to the left ventricle. When this occurs, the subject may become dizzy or feel faint. May be caused by holding the breath while exerting force.

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