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VOWEL AND DIPHTHONG DRILLS

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Level 1 Practice Words for [i]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Make the target sound long enough.

Level 1 Practice Phrases for [i]. Read down the columns, and be aware of duration.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [i]. Don't attack the target sound too hard; lead in smoothly.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [i]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Ease into the [i], especially at the beginning of a word. In the fifth edition, "speech" changed to "ski"; "speed" changed to "tree."

Level 2 Practice Phrases for [i]. Read down the columns. Give [i] the proper duration, and an easy attack.

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Level 2 Practice Sentences for [i]. Continue awareness of attack.

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Contrast Drill for [i] and [I]. Slowly read the word pairs. The target sound should be shorter than the [I] in the first word of each pair.

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Level 1 Practice Words for [I]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Be aware of duration, and don't attack too hard.

Level 1 Practice Phrases for [I]. Read down the columns. Keep the target sound short.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [I]. Keep the target sound short, with an gentle attack. This drill continues on the next page.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [I] and [Ie]. Read down the columns. The words in the first part of the list contain the target sound as part of a diphthong. In the second part, cleanly cut off the target sound in unstressed positions; don't add a schwa to it as in a diphthong. This drill consists of three lists, and continues on the next page.

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Level 2 Practice Phrases for [I]. Read down the columns. Use a gentle attack on the target sound.

Level 2 Practice Sentences for [I]. Control the attack, and continue to end the target sound cleanly when it's unstressed This drill continues on the next page.

Challenge Sentences for [I]. It may be difficult to discriminate between [I] and [i] in these difficult contexts. You may stumble, but don't worry. Just start over again, slowly.

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Contrast Drill for [e] and [eI]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. The target sound in the first word of each pair should be noticeably shorter than in the second.

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Contrast Drill for [e] and [e]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Notice how your mouth is open wider for the first word in each pair.

Level 1 Practice Words for [e] and [eI]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Make the target sound a diphthong when it is followed by a voiced consonant.

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Level 1 Practice Phrases for [e] and [eI]. Read down the columns. Be aware how the duration of the target sound varies according to context.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [e] and [eI]. Don't attack the target sound too hard in initial position. This drill continues on the next page.

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Minor Diphthong [ee]. Even though the speech of your region may not use "r-shading," emphasize the [e] for practice. Read down the columns.

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Contrast Drill for [e] and [e]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Notice how your jaw drops for the second word of each pair.

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Contrast Drill for [e] and [e]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Open wider on the second word of each pair.

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Level 1 Practice Words for [e]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Open wide for the target sound. In the fifth edition the second "beginning" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "beginning" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "beginning" column. "Engineer" has changed to "exit"; "exit" has changed to "elbow"; "elbow" has changed to "engine."

Practice Words for [ee]. Even though your region may be "r-less," emphasize the [e] for practice. As you listen to the tape, the words in column 1 match the words on the tape. Then you will hear the following words: careful, cared, wary, barefoot, spared and flared.

Level 1 Practice Phrases for [e] and [ee]. Read down the columns. Feel your jaw drop on the target sound.

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Level 1 Practice Sentences for [e] and [ee]. Some of these sentences have [I] for contrast. Listen and feel for the differences.



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Contrast Drill for [e] and [æ]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Your jaw should drop for the second word in each pair.

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Transfer Exercise for [æ]. Read across slowly, smoothly, and methodically. Try to make the target sound identical in each word, even though the words may not sound entirely natural. Listen carefully to your production of each word, comparing it with the words before. Try lines 7 through 25 on your own.

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Level 1 Practice Words for [æ]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Open wide enough, and don't make the vowel into a diphthong. In the fifth edition the second "beginning" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "beginning" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "beginning" column. "Aim" has changed to "am."

Level 1 Practice Phrases for [æ]. Read down the columns. Continue to open wide.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [æ]. Open wide, and avoid diphthongization.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [æ]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Try to avoid excessive nasality on the target sound. In the fifth edition, column #1 "answer" has changed to "as; "as" has changed to "and." In column #2, "wax" has changed to "jam"; "crash" has changed to "bashful"; "hassle" has changed to "ranch." In column #3, "stranded" has changed to "strand"; "strap" has been taken out and "than has been added at the bottom of column #3. In column #4 "California" has changed to "bath"; "fragment has been taken out and "mask" has been added at the end of the column.

Level 2 Practice Phrases for [æ]. Read down the columns, and continue to avoid nasalizing.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [æ]. Read these sentences slowly. Work at keeping your mouth open wide enough, and avoid nasalizing. This drill continues on the next page.

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Challenge Sentences for [æ]. These sentences are "loaded" with the target sound. Continue to avoid diphthongization. If you stumble, start over again, slowly.

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Contrast Drill for [u] and [q]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. The target sound occurs in the second word of each pair, and is longer and more tense than the vowel in the first word.

Practice Words for [u]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Listen for the desired length and feel for the tension.

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Practice Sentences for [u]. Read the sentences slowly. Continue to be aware of the duration of the target sound. Try sentences 10 through 15 on your own.

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Minor Diphthong [qe]. Read down the columns of contrasting pairs of words. Because many people in your region may not distinguish between the diphthongs, the differences may be hard for you to hear. Also, even though your region may be "r-less," emphasize the [e] for practice.

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Practice Words for [q]. Read down the columns. Keep the target sound short and relaxed.

Practice Sentences for [q]. Read the sentences slowly. Continue to keep the target sound short and relaxed.

Challenge Sentences for [q] and [u]. These sentences present the target sounds in difficult contexts. Remember, spelling often doesn't indicate which sound should be used. Try sentences 6 through 10 on your own.

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Contrast Drill for [o] and [oq]. Make the target sound longer.

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Practice Words for [o]. Read down the columns. Keep the target sound short and relaxed.

Practice Sentences for [o] and [oq]. Read the sentences slowly. Continue to keep the target sound short and relaxed.

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Level 1 Practice Words for [B]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Drop your jaw before the target sound, and hold steady during production. In the fifth edition, "torn" has changed to "drawn."

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Level 1 Practice Phrases for [B]. Read down the columns. Open wide enough, before producing the target sound.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [B]. Read the sentences slowly. Hold your jaw steady while producing the target sound.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [B] and [Be]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Prevent your jaw from rising and your lips from rounding too much. Even though your region may be "r-less," emphasize the [e] for practice.

Level 2 Practice Phrases for [B]. Read down the columns. You may have to exaggerate mouth opening.

Level 2 Practice Sentences for [B]. Read the sentences slowly and carefully. Make sure to open wide, and control lip-rounding.

Challenge Sentences for [B]. Both [B] and [Be] appear in these sentences. This exercise is continued on the next page.

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Practice Words for [a] and [ae]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words, then read the remaining words on the next page. Open wide, and say "Ahhh." There are no English words that end in [a]. In the fifth edition the second "beginning" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "beginning" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "beginning" column.

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Practice Phrases for [a]. Read down the columns. Continue to open wide.

Practice Sentences for [a]. Read the sentences slowly and try to feel your jaw drop.

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Contrast Drill for [a] and [u]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. You should be able to feel your jaw rise for the second word of each pair.

Practice Words for [u]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Try to find the same jaw height you used in the contrast drill above. In the fifth edition the second "beginning" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "beginning" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "beginning" column.

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Practice Phrases for [u]. Read down the columns. Be aware of jaw height and duration of the target sound.

Practice Sentences for [u]. Read the sentences slowly. Don't exaggerate the length of the target sound.

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Level 1 Practice Words for [e]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Remember, the target sound is unstressed.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [e]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Continue to minimize the stress on the target sound.

Level 2 Practice Sentences for [e]. Continue to be aware of stress patterns.

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Contrast Drill for [BI] and [_]. Read down the columns of contrasting word pairs. Listen for the difference between the diphthong in the first word and the vowel in the second. You may use either [_] or [_] in the second.

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Practice Words for [_]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Imitate the speakers, even though your area may be "r-less." In the fifth edition the second "beginning" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "beginning" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "beginning" column.

Practice Sentences for [_]. Continue to imitate the speakers' production.

Challenge Sentences for [_]. These sentences are "loaded" with the target sound in difficult contexts. Try to be consistent with your production; choose either [_] or [_]. If you stumble, just start over, slowly.

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Practice Words for [e]. Read down the columns starting with End. Avoid trying to over stress the target sound. In the fifth edition the second "end" column and the first "middle" column have been switched. As you listen to the tapes, read the first "end" column, then skip to the first "middle" column and then go back to the second "end" column.

Practice Sentences for [e]. Remember, the target sound is unstressed.

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Contrast Drill for [aI] and Nonstandard [BI]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Try to stop your jaw from rising between the word pairs.

Level 1 Practice Words for [aI]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Check on the amount your jaw rises.

Level 1 Practice Phrases for [aI]. Read down the columns. Continue to be aware of jaw position.

Level 1 Practice Sentences for [aI]. Your jaw may tend to rise during the sentences; read them slowly and carefully. This drill continues on the next page only in the fourth edition.

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Level 2 Practice Words for [aI]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Be certain to open your mouth fully.

Level 2 Practice Sentences for [aI]. Read the sentences slowly, and exaggerate mouth opening. This drill continues on the next page.

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Challenge Sentences for [aI]. These sentences are "loaded" with the target sound. Continue to exaggerate mouth opening. Don't worry if you stumble.

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Contrast Drill for [o] and [aq]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. You should feel your mouth open wide on the second word in each pair.

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Practice Words for [aq]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Make sure you open wide enough, and avoid any lateral "smiling" movement.

Practice Phrases for [aq]. Read down the columns, opening wide for the target sound.

Practice Sentences for [aq]. Don't smile on the target sound; make a round sound.

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Contrast Drill for [BI] and [_]. Slowly read the contrasting word pairs. Open wide for the target sound, and avoid excess lip-rounding.

Practice Words for [BI]. Read down the columns starting with Beginning words. Avoid gradually closing your mouth on the target sound. In the fifth edition "down town" has been changed to "endow."

Practice Sentences for [BI]. Read the sentences slowly, and exaggerate the degree of mouth opening. Avoid excessive lip-rounding.

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Challenge Sentences for [BI]. The target sound is presented in more difficult contexts in these sentences. If you stumble, just start over again more slowly.

CHAPTER 8: VOCAL EXPRESSIVENESS


This portion of The Speech Lab program will help you become familiar with the vocal variables of rate, stress, and pitch that are covered in Chapter Eight. Before going on, complete the exercises in Chapter Seven.

We'll go over the vocal variables one-by-one, first by giving examples, then starting you on drills. Each drill has instructions, but for the sake of continuity, and due to time requirements, the instructions may vary slightly from those in the text. To receive the greatest benefit from the drills, we suggest that you practice out loud, using full voice. We're going to begin with the variable of rate. But going any further, you should establish your own speaking rate by completing the exercise on page 316 (page 310 in the fifth edition), "Determining Your Own Rate." Turn to page 319 (page 312 in the fifth edition) when you have finished this exercise.

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Timed Readings for Rate. Each of the selections should take one minute to read at a rate of one hundred and sixty to one hundred and seventy words per minute. Listen to the reading of selection Number One, then try it yourself. After you're satisfied with your reading of the first selection, go on to selections two, three, and four on your own. Record the time of each reading, and adjust your rate accordingly until each selection takes exactly one minute to read, time and time again.

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Exercise One, Contrast Drill for Duration. Your goal in this exercise is to read at a rate of one hundred and twenty to one hundred and sixty words per minute. Passage Number One should take fifty seconds to one minute to read at this rate. Listen to the passage first, then read it aloud yourself. Time each reading, and adjust your rate accordingly. Don't go on to the remaining passages until you are satisfied that you are reading at the desired rate. When you are satisfied that you are reading at the desired rate you may complete the readings in this section.

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Exercise One, Contrast Drill for Duration. Listen for a difference in how long the vowel sounds in each word are held. Try to exaggerate the difference by making the vowel in the first word of each pair very short, and the vowel in the second word very long.

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Exercise Two, Duration. Read words aloud, down the columns, giving the vowels the duration as marked.

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Exercise Three. Read the columns a total of four times, at an average loudness. First read the entire list, giving the vowel sounds average duration. Then, read the list again, making the vowel sounds as short as possible. Then give the vowel sounds average duration again. Finally, make the vowels sounds as long as possible.

Listen as the reader reads the first column all four ways as an example, then read the entire list yourself. When you have finished, go back over the list and mark the vowels with the symbols for whatever duration you believe to be appropriate. Pronounce the words in accordance with the markings.

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Practice Exercises for Pausing. Try these selections after you have completed the pausing exercises on page 322 (5/e pg. 316). Make light marks in pencil so you can change the pauses if they don't seem right when you read aloud. Read each selection a few times, and change the pausing each time. Listen to Selection A first, and mark the reader's pauses. When you are satisfied with your reading, complete the rest of the readings in this section.

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Please read the discussion of Stress on pages 327 and 328 (320 - 321 in the fifth edition) before you try this drill. By Word Stress, we mean making different words louder to transmit special meaning. Repeating the first three of the following sentences after the reader. You'll begin by stressing the first word of each sentence, then moving the stress to the second word, and so on.

Continue with the rest of the sentences on your own. Also, complete the second half of the exercise, by underlining the words to show where you would place primary and secondary stress.

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Syllable Stress Drill. After you've read the discussion of Syllable Stress on page 329 (322 in the fifth edition), read the following words aloud, in groups of three. Place primary stress on the first syllable of each word.

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Polysyllabic Stress Drill. Read across the page. Place the primary stress on the appropriate syllable.

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Practice Readings for Stress. It may be helpful for you to underline words for primary and secondary stress before reading the following selections aloud. Remember, there's no right way: interpretation of the authors' words is up to you. Listen to the first selection as an example. Then, underline it for stress, and read it aloud your self. When you're satisfied with your reading, go on to the remaining selections on your own.

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Key. Before continuing, be sure to read the discussion of intonation on that begins on page 333 (326 in the 5th edition). Key is the average pitch level of an utterance. Generally, we refer to three keys - low, middle, and high. Middle key should be comfortable for you; it usually corresponds to optimum pitch.

Read the selections aloud using the different keys. Read each sentence five times: middle key first, then high key, then back to middle key, then low key, and finally middle key again. Repeat each key after the reader for the first sentence, and then complete the rest of the sentences on your own.

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Middle Key Readings. Read these selections at the middle key level. Listen to the first as an example. Then, read it aloud yourself, and complete the rest of the readings.

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Low Key Readings. Read these selections at the low key level. Listen to the first as an example, then read it aloud yourself. Complete the rest of the readings on your own.

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High Key Readings. Read these selections at the high key level. Listen to the first as an example. Then, read it aloud yourself, and complete the rest of the readings on your own.

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Drills for Inflection. Before you go try this drill, read the discussion of inflection that begins on page 339 (332 in the fifth edition). Read across the page, reading each of the words aloud three times, and each time asking more of a question. In other words, you're going to read them with rising pitch, and each time you read a word you're going to exaggerate, making the pitch rise more than the time before. Start each word at the same pitch level as the word before: don't "step" each word higher.

When you have completed the words, turn to page 340 (333 in the fifth edition) and read each sentence three times, each time exaggerating the rise in pitch at the end. Continue to start each sentence at the same level as the previous one; don't start progressively higher.

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Drill for Falling Inflection. Read each word aloud, three times. Each time make it more of a definite, positive statement. Each time, exaggerate the falling inflection. Try to start each word at the same pitch level as the previous word; don't "step" each word lower.

After you've completed the exercise with words, follow the same procedure with the sentences on the same page. Listen to the first as an example, then complete the rest on your own.

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Drill for Circumflex Inflection. Say each word aloud four times. The first time, use falling inflection. The second, third, and fourth times follow the markings and use circumflex inflection, exaggerating the pitch rise and fall more than the time before. Start each word at the same pitch level.

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Practice Sentences for Inflection. These sentences contain both rising and falling inflections. Read each one using the pattern indicated by the arrows. Mark sentences 11 through 15 yourself, and try them on your own.

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Drill for Steps. Sentences 1 through 10 have been diagramed for steps. Read them aloud, using steps as indicated by the markings. Mark sentences 11 through 20 yourself, and try them on your own.


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Readings for Intonation. Now it's time for you to try your interpretations of the material, so we have not recorded any examples. Read the selections silently first, and decide on the appropriate pitch patterns to use. Prepare by marking the selections in advance for overall key, inflectional changes, and steps. Make your markings erasable so that you can vary your readings.

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Integration. This is the end of our cassette program, and you're ready to practice the "Readings for Integration" on your own. Read the instructions on page 345 (338 in the fifth edition) for some general guidelines, and prepare the selections on your own. Read them silently, mark them for the elements of vocal variety, and then have some fun with Vocal Expression.

NOTES

feedback form | permissions | international | locate your campus rep | request a review copy

digital solutions | publish with us | customer service | mhhe home


Copyright ©2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
McGraw-Hill Higher Education is one of the many fine businesses of the The McGraw-Hill Companies.