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Human Development
7th Edition
Diane E.Papalia
Sally Wendkos Olds

1998

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Multiple-Choice

Circle the letter of the response which best completes or answers each of the following statements and questions.

  1. Eight-year-old James received a failing grade on a math test. Instead of thinking of himself as being "dumb," James recognizes that he is "smart" in several other subjects. His ability to move beyond an all-or-nothing, black-or-white self-definition toward a morecomprehensive evaluation is representative of which of the following concepts?
    1. coregulation
    2. representational systems
    3. external locus of control
    4. egocentrism


  2. The successful resolution of Erikson's fourth crisis, industry vs. inferiority, is
    1. popularity
    2. competence
    3. love
    4. the virtue of purpose


  3. Veronica, who is 9 years old, is asked to rate the importance of doing well in five domains of life in order to feel good about herself. According to Susan Harter's research, which of the following domains will Veronica rate as most significant?
    1. how well she does in school
    2. how good an athlete she is
    3. what she looks like
    4. how well she behaves


  4. Which of the following children is most likely to feel a strong sense of self-worth?
    1. Luis, who believes it is important to be smart and a good athlete and considers himself both but does not feel valued by his parents because he is the youngest child
    2. Charlotte, whose family and friends shower her with praise and support, but does not believe she is pretty, an attribute she regards highly
    3. Angel, who believes it is important to be a good student and attractive and considers herself both and who feels valued by her parents and peers
    4. All of the above three children should feel an equal sense of self-worth.


  5. In Furman and Buhrmester's study in which children rated the important people in their lives, it was found
    1. children look to their friends for affection, guidance, and enhancement of worth
    2. children rated their parents as the most important people in their lives
    3. boys relied more on their best friend than girls did
    4. children valued their friends as being the greatest influence on their lives


  6. Theo and Lisa's twin boys have entered middle childhood. From research on parent-child relationships, we can assume that Theo and Lisa
    1. are more concerned about how involved they should be in their sons' school life
    2. are concerned with their sons' whereabouts and with whom they are spending their free time
    3. often disagree with their sons over issues such as household chores and allowance
    4. all of the above


  7. A multigenerational family consisting not only of parents and children, but also of more distant relatives--grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins--refers to which of the following terms?
    1. the nuclear family
    2. the traditional family
    3. the extended family
    4. none of the above


  8. In order for the transitional phase of coregulation to work, how should parents act toward children in middle childhood?
    1. . impose consequences randomly so that children never know when to expect to be disciplined
    2. communicate clearly with children and provide support, guidance, and general supervisory control
    3. impose rigid rules and regulations on children and regularly scrutinize children's actions
    4. expect children to adopt values and standards like their own


  9. Deonza, the mother of two children, has recently been divorced and started a full-time job. Most likely, how will Deonza's employment affect her and her family?
    1. . Deonza's job will cause her to feel less competent, and she is more apt to abuse her children.
    2. Her job will enable her to feel more satisfied and to a more effective parent.
    3. She will feel such guilt over being away from her children that she will eventually quit her job.
    4. Deonza will have lower self-esteem than she did as a homemaker.


  10. One finding from studies on mothers' working outside the home is that
    1. daughters of working women have fewer stereotypes about gender roles than children in "traditional" families
    2. mothers' homes tend to be less structured, without clear-cut rules, and their children are usually less independent
    3. boys and girls in single-parent, lower-income families are negatively affecte d when their mothers work; in particular, they achieve less in school e. none of the above


  11. Rashad, 11, comes home from school, unlocks the door, throws down his books, and then fixes himself a snack. Soon after, he phones his mother at work to check in. This is Rashad's daily routine. He cares for himself until his mother returns from her job at 5 p.m. Research on self-care children like Rashad leads us to believe that
    1. Rashad is from a poor, single-parent family
    2. Rashad's achievement in school is far less than that of an 11-year-old who is cared for by his mother after school
    3. as society adjusts to the growing number of working mothers, Rashad is less likely to be viewed as the stereotypical "latchkey" child (neglected and lonely)
    4. both b and c


  12. In regard to the relationship between poverty and parenting, which of the following statements is least accurate?
    1. Families under economic stress are less likely to monitor their children's activities.
    2. A lack of money can make it harder for mothers and fathers to support each other in parenting.
    3. Parents who live in poor housing and feel a lack of control over their lives are likely to become anxious, depressed, and irritable.
    4. Children from persistently deprived families, when compared to children from families with no hardship, show no difference in regard to development.


  13. Twelve-year-old Linda's parents have recently separated. From research on children of divorce, we can most reasonably infer that Linda may
    1. become aggressive, disruptive, or withdrawn
    2. lose interest in schoolwork and social life
    3. come through the painful experience of divorce with a basically intact ego, depending upon her own resilience as well as how her parents handle the separation
    4. all of the above


  14. The children of divorcing parents face several special challenges or "tasks" which are crucial to their adjustment. These tasks include all of the following except which?
    1. acknowledging the reality of the marital break-up
    2. adjusting to the many losses of the divorce: of the parent they are not living with,familiar daily routines and family traditions, etc.
    3. resolving anger and self-blame related to the divorce
    4. holding on to the fantasy that their parents will be reunited


  15. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the long-term effects of divorce on children?
    1. Ten years after the divorce, girls are far more likely to be emotionally troubled, lonely, and to hold back in relationships with boys.
    2. When children of divorce reach adulthood, they are more depressed and have far more frequent marital problems than people who had grown up in intact families.
    3. Ten years after the divorce, boys are far more likely to be emotionally troubled, lonely, and to hold back in relationships with girls.
    4. Most children of divorce never completely adjust to their parents' separation, leaving them disturbed and uncaring as adults.


  16. Research on stepfamilies reveals which of the following?
    1. Early adolescent boys and girls have less trouble than younger children in adapting to remarriage and bonding with a stepparent.
    2. Girls are less likely than boys to accept a stepfather as a parent.
    3. Stepfathers tend to be much more involved than stepmothers, taking their stepchildren to various activities and providing emotional support.
    4. all of the above


  17. Brett's parents are lesbians. According to the research conducted on the personal development of children of homosexuals, all of the following statements are false, except which one? He
    1. has an increased likelihood that he will also become a homosexual
    2. will likely exhibit social or psychological problems in school
    3. will probably have a positive relationship with his parents
    4. will have an increased risk of being abused by his parents


  18. Jeremiah is 10 years old, and his little sister, Desirée, is 5 years old. Research on sibling relationships tells us that
    1. Desirée, because she is second born, tends to be bossy and is more likely to attack,ignore, or bribe her older brother
    2. Jeremiah, because he is first-born, tends to be a negotiator; he compromises, pleads, and reasons with his younger sister
    3. Desirée and Jeremiah get along better and squabble less than two same-sex siblings
    4. Jeremiah is more apt to reason with his younger sister; he is rarely bossy


  19. Kendra is the oldest daughter of a family living in a remote village of Africa. According to Cicirelli's research on the impact of culture on sibling relationships throughout life, which of the following song titles would be most representative of Kendra's feelings toward her family?
    1. "Lean on Me"
    2. "I'm as Free as a Bird"
    3. "Everybody Wants to Rule the World"
    4. You Can Go Your Own Way"


  20. Which of the following is a positive effect of the peer group?
    1. It helps children learn how to get along in society.
    2. It helps children learn and frees them to make judgments.
    3. It counterbalances the influence of parents.
    4. all of the above


  21. Negative attitudes toward "outsiders," especially members of certain racial or ethnic groups, describes which concept?
    1. coregulation
    2. prejudice
    3. egocentrism
    4. altruism


  22. Ethan is a very popular, well-liked fourth grader. Which of the following characteristics is Ethan most likely to possess? He is
    1. a "goodie-goodie" in school
    2. very aggressive and likes to "bully" his peers
    3. trustworthy and loyal to his peers
    4. none of the above


  23. Which of these factors would probably not account for a child's unpopularity?
    1. poor social skills
    2. authoritarian parent
    3. expecting to be well-liked
    4. inability to adapt to new situations


  24. Chandra is an unpopular fifth grader. She gets along poorly with her peers and is rejected by most of them. It is likely that Chandra
    1. may develop emotional and behavioral difficulties later in life
    2. has supportive parents whose approach to childrearing is authoritative
    3. tends to seek out friends who are just as antisocial as she is
    4. both a and c


  25. According to the results of a study comparing the effects of culture on the popularity of Chinese and Canadian children, which of the following conclusions is least valid?
    1. Shy, sensitive Chinese youngsters will probably be perceived as being popularthroughout childhood.
    2. A sociable, cooperative child is likely to be popular in both China and Canada.
    3. An aggressive child will probably be rejected in both countries.
    4. A quiet, shy Canadian youngster is likely to be seen as lacking in self-confidence when rated by his peers.


  26. Mrs. Grace conducted a sociogram of her fifth grade class and discovered that one of her brightest students, Justin, was viewed as being unpopular with his peers. According to the research on social skills training, Mrs. Grace would be most likely to enhance Justin's popularity by exposing him to which of the following?
    1. make no changes to Justin's school program
    2. allow Justin to participate in a group project
    3. provide Justin with social skills training
    4. provide Justin with social skills training and enroll him in a group project


  27. Which of the following statements about friendship among children is most accurate?
    1. Girls care more about having many friends than boys do.
    2. Friendships become less intimate as children approach adolescence.
    3. Boys have more friendships than girls do.
    4. Friendship among school-age children is less stable than friendship among preschoolers.


  28. Rolando, 10, has been at sleep-away camp for the last 15 days. He has complained daily of stomachaches, headaches, and has thrown up three times. When Rolando returns home with his parents, though, his symptoms disappear. Rolando has been suffering from
    1. separation anxiety disorder
    2. acting-out behavior
    3. clinical depression
    4. phobia


  29. Which of the following statements is true regarding school phobia?
    1. School phobia may be a form of separation anxiety disorder.
    2. School phobia seems to have more to do with a fear of leaving the mother.
    3. School-phobic children tend to be average or good students, whose parents are professionals.
    4. all of the above


  30. Children who consistently lie, steal, and destroy property are most likely suffering from which of the following emotional problems?
    1. school phobia
    2. acting-out behavior
    3. separation anxiety disorder
    4. childhood depression


  31. Eugenia, 10, has difficulty concentrating and is unable to have fun. She is often tired or extremely active. In addition, Eugenia cries a great deal, suffers from school phobia, and thinks about death. A psychologist would classify Eugenia as suffering from
    1. the "hurried-child" syndrome
    2. acting-out behavior
    3. childhood depression
    4. resilience


  32. Dr. Locke is a therapist who sees children on a one-on-one basis, uses dolls to represent significant family members, and tries to gain insights into a child's personality. Dr. Locke is using which type of treatment approach?
    1. reality therapy
    2. drug therapy
    3. individual psychotherapy
    4. behavior therapy


  33. Claudia's daughter, Candace, aged 10, refuses to pay attention in school. She disrupts her classes, refuses to do her homework, and dislikes her teacher. Claudia takes her daughter to a therapist who employs the following approach: Each time Candace behaves well in class or does her homework, her mother rewards her with toys, candy, clothes, etc. This type of therapy is referred to as
    1. family therapy
    2. behavior therapy (behavioral
    3. drug therapy
    4. individual psychotherapy modification)


  34. The child psychologist, David Elkind, concerned about the pressures on children today, coined which of the following terms?
    1. resilient child
    2. depressed child
    3. abnormal child
    4. hurried child


  35. Children who move frequently are at increased risk for exhibiting all of the following except
    1. overly mature for their age
    2. emotional, behavioral problems
    3. health problems
    4. repeating a school grade


  36. In an attempt to determine what children mostly worry about, researchers have found that children are most concerned with which of the following?
    1. personal harm from others
    2. their own health
    3. school performance
    4. their parents' well-being


  37. A resilient child is one who
    1. gives up easily on tasks of endurance
    2. lacks emotional stability
    3. suffers from various health problems
    4. bounces back from circumstances that would blight most others


  38. In regard to what is known about children who live in chronic danger, which of the following statements is least accurate?
    1. Children who grow up surrounded by violence often have trouble concentrating and remembering.
    2. Children with multiple risks to violence are the most likely to suffer permanent developmental damage.
    3. Children who first see or experience violence before age 11 are no more likely to develop psychiatric symptoms than if first exposed to it as teenagers.
    4. Children who grow up with violence need islands of safety in their lives.


  39. To reduce violence, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all of the following except which one?
    1. allowing children exposed to increased rates of violence more freedom to decide how they want to spend their time
    2. regulating and restricting ownership of handguns and ammunition
    3. stopping the romanticizing of gun use in television and movies
    4. targeting adolescents at high risk for becoming violent


  40. Which of the following factors seem/seems to contribute to children's resilience to stress?
    1. good relationship with parents
    2. experience solving social problems
    3. a supportive school environment and successful experiences in sports, music, or with other children
    4. all of the above



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