Chapter Links For Basics, 3rd Ed.
Table of Contents
Part One: The Writing Process
1. Learning the Writing Process
2. Gathering Information
3. Focusing on the Central Idea
4. Outlining and Drafting an Essay
5. Rewriting Drafts
6. Preparing a Final Copy
7. Writing Focused, Unified, and Coherent Paragraphs
8. Developing Ideas and Arranging Details in a Paragraph
9. Writing Introductions and Conclusions
Part Two: Research Process
10. Learning How to Research and Take Notes
Part Three: Researching Online
11. Learning How to Research Using Electronic Sources
Part Four: MLA Documentation
12. Writing the Research Paper Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
Part Five: APA Documentation
13. Writing the Research Paper Using the American Psychological Association (APA) Format
Part Six: Chicago and CBE Documentation
14. Writing the Research Paper Using Other Formats
Part Seven: Special Assignments: Arguments, Literature, Business Writing
15. Writing Argument
16. Literary Papers
17. Writing for Business
Part Eight: Sentence Sense
18. Sentence Building Blocks
19. Sentence Structure
20. Sentence Logic and Effectiveness
Part Nine: Correct Usage
22. Verb Forms and Tenses
24. Adjectives and Adverbs
25. Word Choice
Part Ten: Punctuation, Spelling, and Mechanics
27 End Punctuation
29 Semicolons and Colons
30 Other Marks of Punctuation
Part Eleven: Document Design
33 Principles of Design
Part Twelve: Guide for ESL Writers
34 Additional Help for ESL Writers
Part One: The Writing Process [top]
- Learning the Writing Process [top]
The writing process consists of various stages: prewriting, writing a rough draft, revising, editing and proofreading and publishing (giving it to a publisher or teacher).
- <http://cctc.commnet.edu/HP/pages/darling/grammar/composition> Principles of Composition, by Charles Darling, Capital Community-Technical College.
- <http//www.colostate.edu/Depts/WritingCenter/references/processes.htm> Guides to Writing Processes, Colorado State University.
- <http://www.amherst.edu/~writing/wb_html/wb.html> Writing Better, A Handbook for Amherst Students, by Susan Snively, Writing Counselor, Amherst College. This site provides a very strong overview of the process.
- <http://www.clearef.uvic.ca/writersguide/Pages/EssaysToc.html> The Essay, The UVic Writer's Guide, University of Victoria. This site provides a thorough investigation of essay writing.
- <http://www.urich.edu/~writing/wweb.html>Writer's Web, University of Richmond, VA.
2. Gathering Information [top]
Early stages of the process consist of collecting data from internal sources (thinking) or from external sources (reading or interviewing).
- <http://www.amherst.edu/~writing/wb_html/chapter1.html> Getting Started: Steps to Organization, in Writing Better, A Handbook, for Amherst Students by Susan Snively, Writing Counselor, Amherst College
- <http://www.odu.edu/~wts/gen.htm> Generating Ideas, includes a Idea Tree, Writing Tutorial Services, at the Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.
- Focusing on the Central Idea [top]
The writing process continues as one focuses on a central concern.
- Outlining and Drafting an Essay [top]
The writing process continues as one outlines and writes a draft.
- <http://www.up.net/~msbones/ww01002.htm> Drafting, The Writing Process Web, by Casey Anderson.
- <http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/writing/tools/audience.html> Audience Awareness Questions, The Writing Program, University of Southern California.
- <http://www.odu.edu/~wts/audience.htm> In Search of an Audience, Writing Tutorial Services, at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.
5. Rewriting Drafts [top]
Revising the draft is vital in the writing process.
Editing Process, by Charles Darling, Capital Community-Technical College.
- <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/writecenter/web/revise.html> Suggestions for Revising Prose, Writing Center Web, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Computer Revisions.
- <http://www.utexas.edu/student/lsc/handouts/1234.html> How to Write and Revise a Rough Draft, Learning Center, University of Texas in Austin.
6. Preparing a Final Copy [top]
Completing the process occurs as the writer edits and proofreads for the final times.
- <http://www.urich.edu/~writing/wweb/finaled.htm>Checklist for a Final Edit, Writer's Web, University of Richmond, VA.
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/91.html> Steps in Editing Your Paper, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
Peer Editing Guide
7. Writing Focused, Unified, and Coherent Paragraphs [top]
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/13.html> Coherence, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
Unified and Coherent Paragraphs
8. Developing Ideas and Arranging Details in a Paragraph [top]
Patterns of Arrangement
General to Specific
Specific to General
9. Writing Introductions and Conclusions [top]
- <http://www.gmu.edu/departments/writingcenter/handouts/introcon.html> Guide to Introductions, Conclusions and Titles, George Mason Writing Center.
Part Two: Research Process [top]
10. Learning How to Research and Take Notes [top]
research center." Infonautics Corporation.
- <http://www.ipl.org/teen/aplus/stepfirst.htm> Research and Writing Step by Step, The Internet Public Library.
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writers/by-topic.html#research> Research Papers, Purdue Online Writing Lab.
- <http://www.dla.utexas.edu/depts/ams/lskills/ American Studies Learning Skills, by Todd Vogel and Katherine Thornock, provides information on note taking and the research process. This is a very inventive visual approach to web design. University of Texas in Austin.
- <http://www.csu.edu.au/division/studserv/esswrit2.htm> Essay Writing II - Planning and Research, Student Services, at Charles Sturt University.
Part Three: Researching Online [top]
11. Learning How to Research Using Electronic Sources [top]
Many university libraries are a great source of information about doing research. Start with your local university library online.
Evaluate Internet Sources
Sites that have been selected and organized into useful categories are of value to researchers.
Meta Search Engines
Multiple search engine all in one site
Part Four: MLA Documentation [top]
12. Writing the Research Paper Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format [top]
Suggestions on MLA Documentation
Resource Links to Citation Sites
- <http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/journalism/cite.html> Karla's Guide to Citation Style Guides, by Karla Tonella, University of Iowa.
Part Five: APA Documentation [top]
13. Writing the Research Paper Using the American Psychological Association (APA) Format [top]
Suggestions on APA Documentation
Part Six: Chicago and CBE Documentation [top]
14. Writing the Research Paper Using Other Formats [top]
Chicago Manual Style
Suggestions on Using Chicago Manual Style
Dealing with Electronic Sources
- <http://www.people.memphis.edu/~mcrouse/elcite.html>Citing Electronic Information in History Papers, by Maurice Crouse, Department of History at the University of Memphis. Offers suggests on how to cite electronic sources.
Suggestions on CBE Citation
Part Seven: Special Assignments: Arguments, Literature, Business Writing [top]
15. Writing Argument [top]
Writing a good argument essay besides taking time, effort, and research, requires understanding rhetorical analysis.
- <http://commhum.mccneb.edu/argument/summary.htm> Identifying the Argument of an Essay, by Frank Edler at the Metropolitan Community College, Omaha, Nebraska. This site gives an overview of argument.
- <http://powa.org/argufrms.htm>Occasions for Argumentative Essays, by Chuck Guilford A good overview of argument is given. Paradigm Online Writing Assistant.
- <http://www.urich.edu/~writing/wweb/argument.htm> Persuasive, Rational Argumentation in Writing, by Patricia Patterson, Writer's Web for the University of Richmond.
- <http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html >Effective Academic Writing: The Argument, from Writing Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- <www.eslplanet.com/teachertools/argueweb/frntpage.htm> Writing Argumentative Essay, by Bill Daly.
- <http://cspnt4.pinc.com/ddgram/index.html> Argumentative Writing and Grammar, Dr. David's Home Page, by Dave Godfrey.
- <http://www.amherst.edu/~writing/wb_html/logic.html> Logic: Helping Words Think Straight, by Susan Snively, Writing Counselor, Amherst College.
16. Literary Papers [top]
Tips on Writing
- <http://www.uky.edu/ArtsSciences/Classics/Harris/rhetform.html> A Glossary of Literary Terms and A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices, includes an introduction and a self test by Robert Harris, Professor of English at Southern California College in Costa Mesa, California.
Literary Online Resources
17. Writing for Business [top]
- <http://www.gmu.edu/departments/writingcenter/business.html> Guide to Business Letters, George Mason Writing Center.
- <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/writecenter/web/memos.html> Memos, by Dan Murphy, Writing Center Web, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
- <http://www.free-resume-tips.com/> Resume Tips, Resource Center, includes "10 Tips to Generate More Interviews and Higher Salary Offers": <http://www.free-resume-tips.com/10tips.html>.
- <http://www.taos.com/resumetips.html>Top Ten Technical Resume Writing Tips, Taos Mountain.
- <http://www.2resumewizards.com/webresume.html> Web Résumés, Resume Wizards.
- <http://www.bradleycvs.co.uk/jobhunt/letters.htm> Letter Writing Etiquette, Bradley CVs.
Part Eight: Sentence Sense [top]
18. Sentence Building Blocks [top]
- <http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/bldsent.html> Building Sentences, by David Megginson, HyperGrammar, Writing Centre, the University of Ottawa.
Parts of Speech
- <http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/OTHERREFERENCE/GRAMMARANDPUNCTUATION/PartsSpeech.html> Parts of Speech, Brain Bank.
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/grammar/grammarcondensed.html> Parts of Speech and Parts of a Sentence, in table format, by Sharon Cogdill and Judith Kilborn, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University.
19. Sentence Structure [top]
- <http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Writing/index.html> Guide to Grammar and Style, by Jack Lynch at Rutgers University.
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/punct/fragmentcauses.html> Common Causes of Fragments, by Becky Marchant, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University.
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/punct/csfsro.html> Comma Splices, Fused Sentences, and Run-ons, by Sharon Cogdill and Judith Kilborn, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University
20. Sentence Logic and Effectiveness [top]
Misplaces and Dangling Modifiers
Avoid Dangling Modifiers
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/misplacedmod.htm> Misplaced Modifiers, by Stephanie Pyter, provides a teaching suggestion, Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Avoid Faulty Shifts
Active Voice Vs. Passive Voice
Part Nine: Correct Usage [top]
21. Agreement [top]
- <http://webster.commnet.edu/hp/pages/darling/grammar/sv_agr.htm> Subject/Verb Agreement, by Charles Darling and Capital Community-Technical College.
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/grammar/subverag.html> Subject and Verb Agreement, revised and then redesigned for the Web by Maggie Escalas, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University.
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement
22. Verb Forms and Tenses [top]
- <http://www.edunet.com/english/grammar/verb1.html> Verbs, by Anthony Hughes, An On-line English Grammar.
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/grammar/tenses.html> Summary of Verb Tenses, in table format, easy to follow, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University.
- <http://www.edunet.com/english/grammar/verb1.html#reg-simpres> Regular Verbs in the Simple Present, by Anthony Hughes, An On-line English Grammar.
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/perfectverb.htm> Perfect and Progressive Forms, by Tamara S. Meyer, includes teaching suggestions, Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- <http://webster.commnet.edu/HP/pages/darling/grammar/verbs.htm#linking>Linking Verbs, Definitions of Basic Sentence Parts: Verbs and Verbals, Guide to Writing and Grammar, by Charles Darling and Capital Community-Technical College.
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/auxiliaryverbs.htm> Auxiliary or Helping Verbs, by Gregory T. Johnson, includes teaching suggestions, Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/regularverbs.htm> Regular and Irregular Verbs, by Sam Patterson, includes teaching suggestions, Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Active and Passive Voice
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/78.html> Voice and Mood, includes active and passive voice, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/verbmood.htm> Verb Mood, by Julie Martin, includes a table, Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
23. Pronouns [top]
- < http://www.edunet.com/english/grammar/pronoun.html#indefinite pronouns> Indefinite Pronouns, by Anthony Hughes, Online English Grammar.
- <http://www.edunet.com/english/grammar/pronoun.html#reflexive> Reflexive Pronouns, by Anthony Hughes, Online English Grammar.
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/127.html> Pronoun Case, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/case.htm> Noun and Pronoun Case, by Natalie Bromann, includes a "A Chart of Pronoun Cases," Grammar Handbook, The Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
24. Adjectives and Adverbs [top]
Comparatives and Superlatives
- <http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/comparatives.htm> Comparatives and Superalitives, by Adam Kaur, Grammar Handbook, Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/81.html> Adjective or Adverb, Purdue Online Writing Lab.
25. Word Choice [top]
- <http://www.variety.com/nav.asp?NavType=slang> Variety Slanguage, A brief but interesting list from "a" to" z" of popular slang.
26 Wordiness [top]
- <http://vancouver-webpages.com/synonyms.html> Synonyms Dictionary.
Avoid Being Wordy
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/127.html> Conciseness: Methods of Eliminating Wordiness, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
- <http://uwc-server.fac.utexas.edu/stu/handouts/wordines.html> Eliminating Wordiness, the Undergraduate Writing Center, University of Texas at Austin.
Part Ten: Punctuation, Spelling, and Mechanics [top]
27 End Punctuation [top]
Declarative sentences use periods.
Interrogative sentences use question marks.
Imperative sentences use periods or exclamation marks.
With Quotation Marks
- <http://www.urich.edu/~writing/wweb/quotemrk.html>Using Quotation Marks, Writer's Web, University of Richmond, VA.
- <http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/qmarks.html> Quotation Marks, by Frances Peck for HyperGrammar, produced by the Writing Centre at the University of Ottawa.
28 Commas [top]
29 Semicolons and Colons [top]
- <http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/punct/colon.html> Colon Rules, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN.
- <http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/colon.html> The Colon, by Frances Peck for HyperGrammar, produced by the Writing Centre at the University of Ottawa.
30 Other Marks of Punctuation [top]
Single Quotation Marks
- <http://englishplus.com/grammar/00000137.htm> Ellipsis, Grammar Slammer, English Plus
- <http://englishplus.com/grammar/00000138.htm> Brackets, Grammar Slammer, English Plus.
- <http://www.clearcf.uvic.ca/writersguide/Pages/GramDash.html> Dashes, The UVic Writer's Guide, University of Victoria.
- <http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/dash.html>The Dash, by Frances Peck for HyperGrammar, produced by the Writing Centre at the University of Ottawa.
- <http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/writing/on-line/apostrop.html> Using the Apostrophe, Hunter College Reading/Writing Center.
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/13.html>Apostophe, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
31 Spelling [top]
- <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/18.html> Using Hyphens, Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
Online Spell Checker
Frequently Misspelled Words
American Vs. British Spelling
32 Mechanics [top]
- <http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/fr_punc.html> Parentheses, Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation, by Jane Staus.
Part Eleven: Document Design [top]
33 Principles of Design [top]
Graphic and Tables
Part Twelve: Guide for ESL Writers [top]
34 Additional Help for ESL Writers [top]
General ESL Sites
Count and Non-Count Nouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
- <http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/grammar.html> Grammar Quizzes, part of the Internet TESL Journal, includes Quizzes on Adjectives and Adverbs.
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