|The Western Experience 7e Chambers/Hanawalt/Rabb/Woloch/Grew|
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- Humans became food producers rather than food gatherers some 12,000 years ago with the development of agriculture, the essential step in the creation of complex civilizations.
- As cities were established in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, the early Sumerian and Babylonian civilizations emerged.
- Egyptians developed a prosperous, long-lasting, religious society along the Nile between about 3000 and 300 B.C.
- After 1650 the Hittites established a powerful state in the Near East, but between 1250 and 1100, invaders utilizing iron weapons ended the Hittite domination and brought the Bronze Age to an end.
- In Palestine, the Phoenicians created a sophisticated urban civilization, while the Israelites developed a short-lived kingdom but an enduring religious and cultural tradition.
- The Assyrians-followed by the Chaldeans, the Medes, and the Persians-established powerful unifying empires in the Near East.