Book Cover The Western Experience 7e Chambers/Hanawalt/Rabb/Woloch/Grew
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Chapter 1: The First Civilizations

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  1. Humans became food producers rather than food gatherers some 12,000 years ago with the development of agriculture, the essential step in the creation of complex civilizations.
  2. As cities were established in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, the early Sumerian and Babylonian civilizations emerged.
  3. Egyptians developed a prosperous, long-lasting, religious society along the Nile between about 3000 and 300 B.C.
  4. After 1650 the Hittites established a powerful state in the Near East, but between 1250 and 1100, invaders utilizing iron weapons ended the Hittite domination and brought the Bronze Age to an end.
  5. In Palestine, the Phoenicians created a sophisticated urban civilization, while the Israelites developed a short-lived kingdom but an enduring religious and cultural tradition.
  6. The Assyrians-followed by the Chaldeans, the Medes, and the Persians-established powerful unifying empires in the Near East.


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