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Chapter 11: Alone Before God

| Chapter Summary | Chapter Outline | Critical Thinking Questions | Review Questions: Multiple Choice | Review Questions: True-False | The Big Picture | Essay Questions | Map Exercises | A Closer Look | Using the Internet | Biography Questions | Guide to Further Research | Chapter in Perspective |

Chapter Summary

The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries witnessed war and destruction on an unprecedented scale in Europe. Rulers fought to win land and power, often at the expense of civilians and soldiers alike. New warfare and larger armies meant even more misery for those drawn into the conflicts. At the same time, new ideas about how to worship God spread through Europe. Reformers questioned the Catholic Church, and introduced an intellectual revolution that split the church into many Christian churches. The Catholic Church itself emerged renewed and reformed from this period of struggle. Blood was also shed over these ideas, bringing misery and violence to many. The ideas and conflicts of this period transformed people’s relationships with God and with each other.


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